The Chinese New Year Festival is considered the most important Chinese holiday and forwards considered after the Chinese calendar, the new year. Since both the People's Republic of China as well as Taiwan officially the Gregorian calendar, is traditionally celebrated the New Year festival is not formally on New Year's Day valid.
They celebrated the New Year festival, especially in China (including Hong Kong and Macao), Taiwan, and with slight differences including Thailand, but also worldwide in addition to areas with large populations of ethnic Chinese parts. These are mainly special districts, the Chinatowns, often in the context of their political, geographical and cultural distance from China, in particular through the consequences of the Cultural Revolution, a special New Year's tradition have developed. Other ethnic groups such as Mongolian, Korean, and Vietnamese Miao created by China in cultural, religious or linguistic terms were affected, or certain elements of the date of the Chinese New Year celebration. The Congress can be considered regionally prove very different.
The Chinese New Year is a clan and family celebration. Since there is a large number of overseas Chinese, and also within the framework of the work force needs of the southern Chinese coastal areas are more family members separated from their families live sets each year during this festival the largest regular migratory movement of the world. The outside of their home areas-working Chinese people usually save their entire annual holiday entitlement to go to the Chinese New Year's celebration at least two, if not more weeks of work to be absent. Since then the home clan interests, and discussed some other job opportunities offered, is a side effect of this migration is that often up to a third of their old Chinese urlaubenden not work again. This is a fixed cost factor e.g. At construction sites throughout the Southeast Asian region.
Because the Chinese calendar, in contrast to the Gregorian calendar astronomically defined, the Chinese New Year falls on different days. He stands on the western Gregorian calendar oriented New Year's celebration, xīn nián.
The Chinese and Vietnamese New Year Festival will take place on the second new moon after the winter solstice, so between 21 January and 21 February. In the very rare cases in which a leap before the eleventh or twelfth month in previous years would have to be inserted arithmetically, it could be the appointment to the date of the third Neumonds after the winter solstice. This will be the next time in the year 2033 the case. Nonetheless, on the other hand, according to Chinese tradition that has never been the first to the eleventh or twelfth months of a year doubled. The Chinese year is not identical to a Gregorian year, neither regarding length even on the start or end related.
With the New Year festival, according to the Chinese astrology of the cyclical change between the twelve different Erdzweigen connected: On 29 January 2006 began the Chinese Year of the Dog. Additionally, a combination with the ten celestial strains through a Sechzigjahrzyklus. Currently it is the heavenly stem "Fire and Yáng", resulting in the current year (number 23) the 78th Sechzigjahreszyklusses and the year 4703 of the Chinese calendar. A comprehensive list is available under Chinese calendar cycles available, with the relatively timely appointments in the right table.
An old Legend says that a monster menschenfressendes annually from the mountains, or according to the source from the sea came to his hunger for a deep sleep to breastfeed. To get in front of the "annual Monster" to protect, the people made noise and fire and everything colored red, as the monster supposedly sensitive to the red color and noise would react. The expulsion of the monster, "Guònián". Des go of the "Nian or annual Monsters", which go with the old year is meant, ie the Neujahresfest.
For New Year greeting, various formulas are often applied.
, Gōnghè Xīnxǐ "Congratulations and new joy"
, Gōngxǐ Fācái, Hokkien Keong hee huat chye, Hakka Kung hee fat choi, kant. Kung hei fat choi
is another expression of congratulations and says successful, rich or prospering. Together that is "congratulations and success or prosperity." This greeting formula is used if you wish other luck will, it is more in southwestern China, and especially in space Canton and Taiwan used.
, Xīnnián Kuàilè
stands for "New Year".stands for "happy / merry."
History and tradition
Preparations for the New Year's celebration started long before his appointment, usually within a period of two weeks. In the People's Republic of China includes the Neujahresfest three statutory holidays, traditionally, it is fifteen, and usually are five to eight days off. The final will take place on 15th Day of the new year with the Lantern Festival Day. The New Year with fireworks, dragon and lion dances, and typically perpetrated by Mah-jongg games support.
Traditionally, 20 Day of the eleventh month is the cleaning of the house with bamboo branches and its subsequent decoration, where the numerous lamps and paper tapes (Duilian) are usually dyed red and black ink by using all kinds of New Year's verdicts were labeled. Red is in China for happiness, joy and prosperity. Also in regard to the annual Red Demons Nian plays a role, because this should be the legend on every New Year's Day a village terrorized and finally by red colour, noise and lights have been distributed. On the walls it also brings happiness golden characters. The banners are hung on the door and turned around. Generally, before the New Year renews everything: it deletes new walls, buys new clothes, visits to the hairdresser and goes preparatory purchases.
Among the many regional rituals usually include the sacrifice of mostly sweet and sticky rice to the Kitchen God. This leaves the house legend after seven days before the New Year's festival, to the Jade Emperor in heaven on the events of the last year to report. The sweet rice, it only positive news, and he finally returns four days after the New Year celebration back into the house, where he met with fruit and tea is received. On New Year's Day itself may not be ladled water fountain, the fountain to God to grant peace. This tradition, however, due to the increasing modernization of the water supply falling.
Last day of the year
The small, or, ideally, no later than larger family comes on the eve of the New Year Festival to a lavish banquet, traditionally with chicken and fish, but not completely eaten up. It will be wrapped in red paper money gifts, in the high hóng bāo called Chinese (Cantonese lai si, Hokkien Ang Pow), distributed to the children, with the amount of money is very important. Also Jiaozi must still for the next day to be prepared. Before the start of the new year by 23 hours to leave the house and then takes up the traces of the old year with the Free, but then reverts back to the window to open and thus the luck of the new year involved. Around 23 pm also sets the fireworks, and holds until late the next morning. In many cities, however, also because of the fire danger.
New Year's Day
The first day of the new year is also with the family celebrated. People meet in the morning and distributed the red paper now unmarried members of the family, sometimes to unmarried guests. Originally, it is just small money gifts, with growing prosperity, however, to accept this and wealthy families can be high totals.