New York Philharmonic
New York Philharmonic
The New York Philharmonic (in English New York Philharmonic) is the oldest symphony orchestra American and one of the most respected. In 2004, it occurs mainly at Avery Fisher Hall, a concert hall at Lincoln Center.
The orchestra, founded by Ureli Corelli Hill, gave the Symphony No. 5 by Beethoven for its inaugural concert on December 7, 1842. Other orchestras had existed in New York before that date, but were unable to prevail. The Philharmonic, however, experienced a growing popularity and an increasing steadily. In the late nineteenth century, it found itself in competition with other orchestras across the country including the Boston Symphony Orchestra who came regularly occur in New York.
In 1893, the New York Philharmonic, led by Anton Seidl, created the world premiere of Symphony No. 9, known as the "New World" by Dvorak, who contributed to the international reputation of the orchestra. However it was in 1909 that the band really took off with its full professionalization. Gustav Mahler, famous today mainly as a composer, was the first conductor.
The orchestra has often commissioned new works by contemporary composers, and found itself at the cutting edge of technological innovation. In 1922, he was the first major orchestra to give a concert broadcast on radio (although this is also the first claimed by the Detroit Symphony). In 1930, these radio programmes are broadcast across America and continue to be today.
The New York Philharmonic won and maintained an excellent reputation in the field of music education. The concerts by young performers (Young People's Concerts), initiated on March 27, 1924 by Ernest Schelling, became famous under the direction of Leonard Bernstein. They are distributed nationally and is available on CD.
The orchestra was officially in residence at Carnegie Hall until 1962, when he moved to Avery Fisher Hall in Lincoln Center. In June 2003, the New York Philharmonic expressed his intention to return to Carnegie Hall in 2006, but Lincoln Center has promised an improvement in the quality of its service, which allowed him to keep the orchestra in its walls.
The orchestra was led by many musical directors and renowned conductors, including Gustav Mahler, Arturo Toscanini, Bruno Walter, Leopold Stokowski, Dimitri Mitropoulos, Leonard Bernstein (the only leader in the history of the orchestra born in the United States), and Pierre Boulez. From 1978 to 1991, Zubin Mehta was the principal conductor. Kurt Masur its successor, and since 2002, Lorin Maazel held this position.
The most prestigious musicians were also invited to lead the Philharmonic Orchestra of New York. These include, in addition to the incumbents, among the composers Richard Strauss, Georges Enesco, or Igor Stravinsky and Aaron Copland, among the chiefs: Otto Klemperer, Wilhelm Furtwangler, Klaus Tennstedt and Erich Leinsdorf.
* Alan Gilbert from the 2009/2010 season
* Lorin Maazel (2002-2009)
* Kurt Masur (1991-2002)
* Zubin Mehta (1978-1991)
* Pierre Boulez (1971-1977)
* George Szell (1969-1970)
* Leonard Bernstein (1958-1969)
* Dimitri Mitropoulos (1949-1958)
* Leopold Stokowski (1949-1950)
* Bruno Walter (1947-1949)
* Artur Rodzinski (1943-1947)
* John Barbirolli (1936-1941)
* Arturo Toscanini (1928-1936)
* Willem Mengelberg (1922-1930)
* Josef Stransky (1911-1923)
* Gustav Mahler (1909-1911)
* Vasily Safonov (1906-1909)
* Walter Damrosch (1902-1903)
* Emil Paur (1898-1902)
* Anton Seidl (1891-1898)
* Theodore Thomas (1877-1891)
* Leopold Damrosch (1876-1877)
* Carl Bergmann (1855-1876)
* Theodore Eisfeld (1848-1865)
* Ureli Corelli Hill (1842-1847)