Latin Jazz of the word
Beyond the difficulty of precisely defining the music he means, the origin of the word jazz is itself subject to controversy. The assumptions made about the origins of the name are many and none appears to agree. The word jazz could be derived from the name of musicians (as Chas Washington); of slang with sexual connotations or that indicate the energy or strength; jasmine that the French cosmetics industry had used in perfumes, which were sold to New Orleans (a theory of Garvin Bushell), a deformation-hunting or hunted beautiful figure of cakewalk (dance cake, in vogue in the nineteenth century), or African roots like the word Bantu jaja ( "dance", "Music"), the term African jasi ( "be excited") or jaiza ( "her distant percussion). The last name comes from the Indonesian certain tribes that called "jaze baqti" a musical rhythm ...
Research by Gerald Cohen indicate that the word appears for the first time from the pen of E. T. "" Scoop Gleeson in the San Francisco Bulletin in March 1913. It is then up to the baseball jargon to describe the energy of a player. The word was used to describe the music group Art Hickman who was playing in the camp with the San Francisco Seals. The group endorsed the adjective during engagements in New York in 1914 and the word spread gradually to Chicago before returning to New Orleans in the form of a letter from Freddie Keppard to King Oliver who popularize since 1917 with his protégé, Louis Armstrong.
The term was mixed musicians for its connotations egregious (especially Duke Ellington preferred the term "Negro music"). During the years 1930 and 1940, numerous alternatives have been proposed, such as ragtonia, syncopep, crewcut, Amerimusic or jarb without much success. The dissemination of the word "jazz" (although in its Jass) is widely associated with its appearance on the first recording of style, in March 1917 by the Original Dixieland Jass Band.
The jazz was born in the United States in the early twentieth century, a mixture of music developed by the black American. His ancestors were the work songs, work songs of African slaves and religious chants, negro spirituals and gospel, sung in churches during religious ceremonies. In the early twentieth century, the blues is being developed in the Mississippi Delta and is widely distributed from 1920 and the first recording of Mamie Smith.
Meanwhile, the ragtime appears, style piano played by Scott Joplin, syncopated music influenced by the Western classical music. In the 1920's, the stride develops Harlem. Heir of ragtime, stride introduced the use of a ternary pulsation, and the virtuosity of the musicians increases, as for example at James P. Johnson. The boogie-woogie develops at the same time in Chicago.
It is in New Orleans that it is generally born jazz, orchestral training with the "brass bands", a mixture of military marches revisited by the American blacks and Creoles, which emphasizes collective expression. The first jazz recording was created in March 1917 by the Original Dixieland Jass Band. Autoproclamé inventor of jazz, Jelly Roll Morton is a bridge between ragtime and jazz, but it is Kid Ory, Sydney Bechet and Louis Armstrong especially necessary as the major soloists formations New Orleans, the latter with its opening solos the door to the era of Swing.
Regarded as the golden age of jazz, appeared around 30 years, the swing (or middle jazz) stands out of New Orleans jazz by an orchestra bigger, and prefers the soloists at the expense of the collective expression . This is the era of big bands of Duke Ellington, Count Basie, Glenn Miller, with a repertory marked by the compositions of George Gershwin, Cole Porter, Richard Rodgersetc. And the variety of songs from Tin Pan Alley, forming the backbone of jazz standards. The great soloists of this time are Coleman Hawkins and Lester Young.
In the early 40 born bebop. Tempos fast, small, breathtaking virtuosity, harmonic and rhythmic innovations, the break is brutal and led by Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie, Thelonious Monk. The intellectualisation of the bebop jazz is not always perceived by the public and some critics, including Hugues Panassié in France will be particularly virulent against this new form of jazz.
Towards the 50 developments appear to bebop, as cool and hard bop. The cool jazz and West Coast include changes in the bop less marked by the rhythm, and generally made by whites. The four Brothers to Jimmy Giuffre, the innovations of Lennie Tristano and collaboration between Miles Davis and Gil Evans are generally grouped under this banner. Rather, the hard bop movement is rather dark, to re-introduce more soul and blues in the bop, and for whom the rhythmic aspect is predominant. Art Blakey, Horace Silver and Sonny Rollins are involved. Other personalities emerge unclassifiable: Bill Evans, Charles Mingus, Oscar Peterson ...
At the end of 50 years, structures and harmonic improvisation are brought to their limits by John Coltrane. Led by Coltrane and Ornette Coleman musicians upset the musical structure and instrumental techniques. The harmonic grid, the steady pace, and even the theme is deleted in favour of collective improvisations, the predominance of energy, and use of non-conventional techniques (peracute, growl, screams, slaps, "sounds dirty" and even noise, it is the birth of free jazz. reactions criticism to this new form of jazz are fierce, and the public much less likely to follow this new music.
In the 60 years, especially 70 years, began on mergers between jazz and other musical styles, jazz and Latin music gives the Latin jazz, but especially the fusion of jazz and rock, jazz-rock, which won public acceptance. The major figures are Miles Davis and the group Weather Report. At the same time, the creation of the record company ECM in Munich involved in the creation and dissemination of a jazz more 'European', sounds more muted and subtle, inspired by classical music, contemporary music and music in the world. Jan Garbarek, John Surman, Louis Sclavis, Kenny Wheeler are some representatives.
Characters key jazz
Jazz is a mixture of musical styles very diverse and as it evolves, it has been able to incorporate many influences and lend themselves to many interchanges, like blues, rock, Latin music, world-beat, and so on.
From the point of view of the art of music, its richness and complexity are now such that it is difficult to describe precisely what characterizes it, because jazz includes a wide variety of sub-types, such as traditional, be - bop, fusion, free jazz, and so on.
According to Travis Jackson, it could define jazz in a more "open", saying that jazz (we talk swing, fusion, or Latin-jazz) is a music that often includes qualities like swing, improvisation, interaction in groups, the development of an individual voice as an artist, and be "open" to different musical possibilities.
The following features in the majority of jazz styles:
* Swing: a somewhat abstract concept means that the music reached a "moment of grace" quite difficult to explain in concrete terms. This is the time when music, "feel", and the interaction between the musicians off;
* Improvisation: a process by which the jazz musician creates or produces a spontaneous musical work using his creativity in the moment and its technical and theoretical knowledge of the various styles of jazz;
* Interaction group;
* The development of an individual voice as an artist (Tone and phrasing): the jazz musicians are often looking for musical expression individual, innovative and creative;
* Be "open" to different musical possibilities;
* Standard jazz: well-known songs, mostly from the Broadway musicals, which have gained some notoriety through these films, which are subject to numerous times and have played at the jam sessions (eg. , All of Me, Autumn Leaves, Mack the Knife, Summertime, and so on.).
Currents of jazz
* New Orleans Jazz
* Hard bop
* Free jazz
* Cool jazz
* West Coast Jazz
* Jazz-rock fusion
* Acid jazz
* Latin jazz
* Modal jazz
* Nu jazz
* Future jazz
* Jazz Manouche
* Smooth jazz
The mythical places of jazz
O The Village Vanguard: in New York City (specifically Manhattan), this is one of the "temples" of the genre. The biggest have occurred, John Coltrane, Miles Davis, Bill Evans… It was created in 1935;
O The Village Gate: located not far from Vanguard in Greenwich Village;
O The Filmore East: although not a place reserved exclusively to jazz, he witnessed the revolution of electric jazz, driven by Miles Davis at the end of 1960;
O The Blue Note: the name of the famous home of jazz disc, the club is a Manhattan at the intersection of 4th Street and 6th Avenue.
O The Birdland: inspired by the nickname of Charlie Parker, Bird, the club founded in 1949 and which hosted regularly on Broadway in New York
O Ronnie Scott's: probably the jazz club's most famous London.
* In France:
O The time spent clubs: the Cave of the Mountains, the fishing cat, the Cameleon, the Riverboat, the Blue Note, Bidule, The Blues Museum, Gill's Club, Riverbop, Le Petit Opportun, The Living Room The Magnetic Terrace, Bilboquet, Le Totem, The Jazz Unit, Dreyer, the Village, the Petit Opportun, The Seven-Lizards, Le Franc-Pinot, all places of jazz in the 60 - 2008
O The New Morning.
O The Caveau de la Huchette, in the Latin Quarter (5th district), the Mecca of jazz classic
O Saint-Germain (Paris): this district on the Left Bank of Paris is a mecca for jazz postwar sung by Mark Twain and facilitated by Django Reinhardt or Art Blakey and his Jazz Messengers;
O The rue des Lombards (Chatelet / Les Halles) concentrates several clubs among the most famous of Paris: Sunset-Sunside, Le Duc des Lombards, Le Baiser Sale.
* Franck Ténot, Dictionary of Jazz 1967
* Lucien Malson, history of jazz, Seuil / Solfèges, 1976 1994
* Philippe Carles, Clergeat Andre and Jean-Louis Comoli, Dictionary of Jazz, Editions Robert Laffont
* Franck Bergerot, Jazz dans tous ses états, editions Larousse
* Christmas Balen, the odyssey of Jazz
Artists influenced by the Jazz
Through its pace, its colors, its atmosphere of clubs, the Jazz is a source of inspiration for other artists, painters, sculptors and photographers.
Among the painters, the most famous is undoubtedly Sacha Chimkevitch THE painter of Jazz, author of several posters festivals. Hailed by Franck Ténot, he rubbed elbows greatest jazz musicians who claimed to regain their "swing" in his paintings.