Marilyn Monroe (born Norma Jeane Mortenson on 1 June 1926 in Los Angeles, California - August 5, 1962 in Los Angeles) is an American actress and singer who became famous in the early 1950s. The Hollywood star was seen as a sex symbol.
She inspired many actresses and celebrities like Jayne Mansfield, Anna Nicole Smith or Madonna, some of which were trying to take advantage of its enormous success by imitating his way to appear in public. Despite his immense fame, she remained unhappy and dissatisfied with the rest of his life. The cause of his death remains the subject of intense speculation: overdose of sleeping pills or assassination.
Marilyn Monroe officialisa legally named after artist as a surname in March 1956.
Elton John has written a song paying tribute to him in 1973, Candle in the wind
Marilyn Monroe was born on 1 June 1926 at the General Hospital in Los Angeles, California, under the name of Norma Jeane Mortenson. Norma's name was chosen by her mother in reference to the actress Norma Talmadge. Later, Marilyn Monroe remove the second "e" from "Jeane." On the birth certificate the names of his mother, Gladys Pearl, and her husband at the time, Edward Martin Mortensen (cf. Attribution). Monroe is the maiden name of the mother of Marilyn. Gladys and Edward already live separated at the time of his birth, and they divorced in August 1928.
Gladys was born on May 24, 1900 in Mexico to American parents under the name of Gladys Pearl Monroe, works as an editor in the film industry and has already had two children from a previous marriage with Jack Baker. It has as many connections as sentimental overnight without psychological problems and health. For a very long time, it can not care for her daughter to be carried out, among other things, to foster families, and his two other children.
Norma Jean lives and at Albert and Ida Bolender in Hawthorne, California for the first seven years of her life. In his autobiography (see bibliography), Marilyn mentions that she did not know who this lady was red, her mother, who visited him from time to time during this period. In 1933, it may finally live some time with her in Hollywood. In 1934, Gladys endure another depression and Norma Jean is successively placed in homes and in an orphanage. Grace McKee, the best friend and wife Gladys M. Goddard, demand in 1936 to become the guardian of Marilyn, which will be formalized in 1937. Norma Jean, in subsequent years, will live with Goddard in Van Nuys, California, but also in a new orphanage. That year, she was sexually assaulted by Ervin Goddard's husband, as well as his cousin Jack Monroe next year. The best period of her childhood, she moved to the same period Ana Lower, Grace's aunt.
Since 1938, Norma Jean uses the surname Baker, the first husband of Gladys. Marilyn says she has abandoned puberty fairly quickly, to the twelve-thirteen years, where his body has changed, far ahead of his peers. It was a rather lonely child.
In 1941, she returned home and Grace made the acquaintance of Jim Dougherty, a neighbor, workman in the first factory radio-controlled drones Radioplane Company factory (created by the actor Reginald Denny), is five years her senior. Grace, in order to get rid of Norma Jean, organizes marriage thereof with Jim, which takes place on June 19, 1942, a few days after his sixteenth birthday. A year later, Jim joined the marines and Norma Jean is working on fireproofing airplane wings and inspecting parachutes in the same factory as her husband.
What Marilyn recounted his life of a married woman does not correspond to the assertions that Jim has made much later. While she says that sexuality not interested at that age and that it took Jim rather as a big brother, it covers an introduction that he enjoy his young wife.
In 1944, she met for the first time his half-sister Bernice Baker in Tennessee (his half-brother died).
The first quasi-professional photo of Norma Jeane is taken in the autumn of 1944 by the photographer David Conover as part of a campaign of the American army to illustrate the involvement of women in the war effort. Everything goes pretty quickly since then, in a few months, she made the cover of some thirty magazine pin-ups and begins to make itself known as the girl Mmmmm. It lightens the color of her hair and left his job to devote herself to her modelling career, especially with the agency Blue Book Model. In December 1945, she directed his first film test for the agency to promote swimsuit.
She and Jim, who have limited contact due to the remoteness of it, divorcing in 1946. That same year, for a few months, she housed her mother, but it must return to a specialized agency to be careful.
First steps in film
Norma Jean is spotted by Howard Hughes who wants to engage in his film company, RKO. His agent for the film believes that another company is more important: it signed its first contract on July 26, 1946 with the 20th Century Fox not renewed after two films. Fox renamed Marilyn Monroe, Marilyn name from Miller actress Marilyn Monroe and the name of his grandmother. She earns $ 75 per week for six months. At that time his name appears for the first time in the chronicle of Hedda Hopper. In March and May 1947, shooting respective Fighting for a blonde and Dangerous Years. In 1947, she climbed on stage to the theatre and have lived her first abortion [ref. Required].
She obtained a new contract at Columbia and turns in Les Reines of music hall (filmed in July 1948) in which critics noted its qualities as a singer. She met Johnny Hyde, his new agent (at the William Morris Agency) that will do a lot for her career. It is not only a father figure, she needed, but also her lover. It plays a very small role in Fishing treasure of Marx Brothers (February 1949). Under the name Mana Monroe, because she needed money, she posed naked for a calendar for photographer Tom Kelly, pictures that will go around the world a few years later when it became known (cf. Nudity in his career). It also appears in another film highlight: The Asphalt Jungle (October 1949).
She got a small role in Eve (May 1950). In September, Photoplay Magazine published the first article on it: How is a star born? ( "How a star born?"), Referring to the film A Star Is Born William A. Wellman (1937). It will be on the screen six times during this pomp year.
In January, she met for the first time the playwright Arthur Miller. On March 29, 1951, it presents the award for best sound receives Eve at the Oscars, this will be his only appearance on the Award. In May 1951, she signed a seven-year contract with Fox to USD 500 per week, with the possibility of an increase. Then ensue Nid d'amour (June 1951), Cheri, divorçons (July 1951) and The demon wakes at night (autumn). At the end of 1951, she received more mail than some established stars of Fox. Some commentators mention of his life a suicide attempt in December.
Beginning in 1952, she turns in Troublez me tonight, his first major role, then in Honey, I feel rejuvenated (January-February), where she appeared for the first time in platinum blonde, its new image and its trademark. She met Joe DiMaggio, baseball living legend, who has just retired. In March broke the story of the schedule, which it released very well (see Nudity in his career). April 7, 1952: First appearance on the cover of Life. His salary increases, but does not always level of the stars of Fox. The press revealed that his mother was patient in a psychiatric hospital, while Marilyn told to be orphaned. For The demon wakes at night that leaves this year, his name is for the first time above the title of the film. She also turns in Niagara (June), then the men prefer blondes (November) for which she is paid about $ 15,000, while Jane Russell receives ten times more. After this film, the two actresses are called to celebrate with their hands and their shoes sidewalk in the Grauman's Chinese Theatre on the Walk of Fame in Hollywood Boulevard.
She's on medication to maintain his line and turns How to marry a millionaire in March 1953. It is now 1500 USD per week, while celebrities have not its appeal to the public are about 5000 or even 10000. It turns River of no return in August 1953. She refuses to turn in a film that Fox has committed, Pink Tights, as it must play a dumb blonde sexy.
On 14 January, she married Joe DiMaggio. The following month, she entertained American soldiers in Korea. It's also the first time sleeping pills. She works with Ben Hecht on his autobiography, in which she will receive the first jet in April (although the book will not appear until 1974 for the first time, and very modified). It turns The Happy Parade (May 1954) for which she has her first absences due to illness. She confides to his coach and friend Natasha Lytess DiMaggio as the bat. She recorded songs for distribution on vinyl by RCA. 1954 will also mark the meeting with the family Strasberg: Lee, Professor of The Method, Paula, his wife, who will also become a coach for Marilyn, and Susan who plays with her in Seven Years of reflection (in August 1954). October: divorce from Joe DiMaggio to be formalized a year later, in October 1955, will have their union lasted only eight months.
In January, the company she founded Marilyn Monroe Productions with Milton Greene, a photographer friend of his. She took courses at the Actors Studio by Lee Strasberg. In May, she meets again Arthur Miller. At December 31, it signed a new contract with Fox finally giving it more power: USD 100,000 per film, $ 500 per week for miscellaneous expenses, the right to inspect the screenplay, the director and the head of photography; it can play in an equal number of films from the competition with Fox.
In March 1956, she officially changed her name from Norma Jeane Mortenson to Marilyn Monroe. It rotates in Bus Stop (spring). She is getting married in June with Arthur Miller, who divorced his wife Mary a few months earlier. It turns in The Prince and the dancer (in August 1956), during which she announces that she is pregnant, she will make a miscarriage. A few months later, in 1957, this situation will be duplicated. It was also in this year that it would have been a coup one night at the Beverly Wilshire Hotel with Elvis Presley, 10 years her junior, in the words of the former agent of rocker Byron Raphael in an interview in New York Post. It would have kept the secret for 50 years so as not to harm their careers.
She begins to see nearly every day and a psychiatrist several psychoanalysts, including Anna Freud and Ralph Greenson.
His health is deteriorating: it takes weight, drink and became irascible. She refused several offers of films, but accepts Some Like It Hot, which was shot in August. An overdose of sleeping pills brought him to the hospital in September. Marilyn fell pregnant again, resulting in another miscarriage.
She signs a contract for a film that the shooting would begin only next year.
It turns The Milliardaire (early 1960) and has an affair with Yves Montand. Marylin sees his new psychiatrist, Dr. Ralph Greenson, almost every day: it exerts a powerful influence on her patient. Earlier this year, she met John F. Kennedy, she already knew since 1954 or 1955. It plays in The Misfits (July), the film written for her by Arthur Miller. She has a new overdose and saw a new hospital stay. The separation is recorded with Miller.
The divorce is granted in January. It is interned in a hospital, but passes by mistake a few days in the psychiatric section, where DiMaggio comes the issue. She and DiMaggio continue to spend a lot of time together. She made the acquaintance of Robert Kennedy. She also suffered its sixth gynaecological operation (over several years) due to various complications. Marilyn met his half-sister, sees much Frank Sinatra, had its first discussions for his next film and spent the New Year with DiMaggio.
The year 1962
In January, it acquired his final resting place in Brentwood in the Los Angeles area. She lives on trips between her doctor and Greenson DiMaggio, and a coma due to barbiturates, all this while a new movie is being established. Indeed, in May 1962 the first place have taken to Something's Got to Give, shooting during which she often looks very sick leave. For this film, she received $ 100000, while it appears that George Cukor (director) and Dean Martin (co-star) each receive $ 300000, whereas it is at that time the largest Features at the time, the foreign press, which had awarded him the prize in Los Angeles a few weeks earlier. Marilyn moves to New York for the anniversary of John F. Kennedy, which will please neither Fox nor Jacqueline Kennedy, who cancels his trip to celebrate her husband.
On June 1, the day of his 36th birthday, it is present on the plateau, where a celebration is held late in the day in his honor: this will be his last professional appearance. On 7, Fox returns from the shooting. However, negotiations are undertaken immediately: 20, Fox announced the resumption of filming shortly. Marilyn, as part of a public relations campaign to restore its image among the general public, allowing photographs of meetings with several leading photographers and interviews with major magazines. DiMaggio and speak remarriage and a date is stopped: August 8, 1962. Other film projects are discussed and launched around Marilyn, as I Love Louisa Jean Harlow and The Story. During the last week of his life is rich in prescriptions for sleeping pills, prescribed by at least two doctors.
On Friday, August 3 is devoted to numerous telephone calls professional and private meetings with his psychiatrist and her friend Pat Newcomb. Saturday is the same: telephones, working in the garden, with Dr. Greenson and walk on the beach with actor Peter Lawford (brother-in-law of Kennedy). It was observed under the influence of tranquilizers and others. At 19:45, it still has a telephone conversation with Lawford, where it seems depressed and confused. He recalled later, but the line is faulty, then it operates several calls to relatives to join anyway. Ms. Murray, the woman-on-how who lived with her - initiated at the request of Dr Greenson, without any jurisdiction, and thus suspected of having been a spy in the pay of Doctor - says it will well then it is 20:30. Author David Spoto think that at this time, Marilyn was already dead or dying of overdoses.
It was from that moment that the versions differ: Who came? When? Why? Who told? And, more importantly, at what point is it Marilyn dead exactly? The police arrived at her home at 4:35, Sunday, August 5, 1962, and Marilyn, naked, lying in his bed, died. Two of the closest doctors are already on the spot. The mystery does that begin ...
On 6 August, claiming DiMaggio, with the half-sister Marilyn, the body of Marilyn and arranges for August 8, the funeral private, which only 24 people, sorted on the track, are invited to attend.
Marilyn, who had turned in 30 films, was 36 years old.
Nudity in his career
In May 1949, while she hardly loop its budget, Marilyn posed nude for a wall calendar (known as the Golden schedule dreams, "Dreams gold", namely the famous photographs on a background of red velvet) for the sum fifty dollars.
The American position he had considered pornographic and banned the distribution in some states. A retouched version is then emerged with clothes designed on the original photo.
In 1952, when she already enjoys certain renown, it is discovered by the press and creates a small scandal in which Marilyn is remarkably well in highlighting the need in which it found itself financially, in December 1953, a few - of these photos appear in the first issue of Playboy magazine, Hugh Hefner, the publisher who bought the clichés.
There have also been long rumour that Marilyn had played, for similar reasons pecuniary, in erotic or pornographic films, a blue movie titled Apple Knockers and the Coke Bottle (literally Apples dampers and the bottle of Coke), and photos were even been presented in erotic magazines in the world. In 1982, Playboy has reversed this belief by stating that the actress of this film was a former playmate of 1954, Arlene Hunter (also spelled Arline), a blonde who looked young enough to Marilyn, it is true.
In 1962, Marilyn Monroe participates in its final meeting of shooting. When contacted by photographer Bert Stern, it arrives at the rendezvous (in a magnificent result of a large hotel in New York) with four hours late, but once arrived, she asks for more than twelve hours. The result is magnificent: over 1500 photos, the best known of which are "naked" where Marilyn shows a very modern beauty. The pictures are always exposed annually to the four corners of the planet. The last meeting was held at the Maillol Museum in Paris in 2006.
One of the great mysteries of the life of Marilyn is the identity of his father. Marilyn's mother, Gladys Baker, or Gladys Mortenson, or Mortensen, a woman was unstable and fragile. We know little about her first husband, unless he was called Jack Baker and that he was the father of two children of Gladys: Jack Hermitt (Jan. 24, 1918 - 1920, died of tuberculosis) and Bernice (July 30, 1919 -?, known as Bernice Miracle), half-brother and half-sister Marilyn therefore. At the birth of Norma Jeane, Jack had long since disappeared and Gladys probably then interviewed various routes. That is where the father of Marilyn intervenes: According to biographers and specialists and Marilyn as she herself has (little) knew and said two possibilities exist:
* Edward Martin Mortenson, or Mortensen: second husband of Gladys (marriage Oct. 11, 1924), a baker who was born in Norway in 1897, where he abandoned his wife and children to travel to the United States. Soon, he left, and Gladys also killed in a motorcycle accident on June 18, 1929 in Ohio. According to the literature, another Martin Edward Mortenson died in California in 1981, which claimed to be the father of Marilyn and had a copy of his birth certificate. On the birth certificate of Marilyn, the father's name is mentioned Edward Mortenson, and the marriage certificate with DiMaggio.
* C. Stanley Gifford: he was the lover of Gladys between 1925 and 1926, when they were co-workers. Their liaison ended when he announced Gladys be pregnant. Marilyn thought he was her father and had tried to get in touch with him on several occasions, without success, and later it was he who wrote and telephoned few years, also without success: it allegedly commented that "it was too late".
Weddings and husbands
She was married three times:
*June 1942 - September 1946: she married when she 16. Years with James Dougherty (1921-2005), student and neighbor in the same school.
* January 1954 - October 1954: it goes with the player baseball Joe DiMaggio. Despite their divorce, they were very close to one another until death of Marilyn. DiMaggio, according to legend, had remained in love with her until the end of his life, in March 1999. His last words, according to his adviser Morris Engelberg, would have been: I'll finally get to see Marilyn ( "I will finally review Marilyn").
* June 1956 - January 1961: she married playwright Arthur Miller, who wrote the screenplay for her film The Misfits.
A fourth marriage was contracted with a certain Robert Slatzer, who wrote that he has been friend and lover of Marilyn over a longer period. According to him - because it seems that Marilyn's friends have not seen - Robert Slatzer, a journalist at the time, was united with the actress a few days in October 1952. But this union is really questionable because of the absence of any official document - Slatzer declare later that the marriage was annulled under pressure from American studios - and because of a cheque signed by the hand of Marilyn, October 4, 1952, in a shop in Los Angeles, and which severely disabled About Slatzer.
Uncertainties surrounding his death
Marilyn began in 1962, during the filming of Something's Got To Give George Cukor. The shooting was interrupted in June 1962, Marilyn was too physically exhausted and could not continue. She will be forced Dean Martin and his partner (who takes his case) to pay damages to Fox for breach of contract. Marilyn organizes an advertising campaign and won the renewal of the contract on August 1, 1962. In exchange for fees worthy of the star she was, she agrees to return Paula Strasberg, his coach. It was expected to resume filming of Something's Got To Give as soon as possible.
Very unstable psychologically, in the night of 4 to 5 August, it dies. The reasons for his death still remains the subject of controversy.
The legend said that it had put in a position last rebellious and sexy lady, and then fell asleep with a glass of whisky, and she died in the night.
The report of the coroner in Los Angeles spoke of suicide likely caused by an overdose of barbiturates.
According to the American novelist Norman Mailer, Marilyn was the victim of a plot hatched by the FBI And the C.I.A. In order to accumulate evidence against Kennedy. The writer is the first victim of a series of political assassinations, including Kennedy, Malcolm X and Martin Luther King.
According to Anthony Summers, who studied on his death, at all levels of intimacy and power (Robert Kennedy, then Minister of Justice, was said to be the lover of the actress), we strove to do Suicide voluntary or involuntary Marilyn something inevitable.
According to Don Wolfe, Marilyn Monroe was murdered. This release involve Robert Kennedy and a host of relatives of the actress who became silent for years.
According to Donald Spoto, one of his biographers most reliable, Marilyn died as a result of a medical error. He was administered an enema with chloral hydrate (chloral allowed him to sleep) when she was absorbed in advance of Nembutal. The mixture of these two substances can, it seems, be fatal.
This death in 1963 inspired the song Who killed Norma Jean? Norman Rosten and Pete Seeger.
Read also Marilyn Monroe