Pablo Ruiz Picasso was born in Malaga (Spain) on October 25, 1881 and died on April 8, 1973 in Mougins (France), was a Spanish artist. It is primarily known for his paintings, but was also a sculptor and is one of the major artists of the twentieth century. It is with Georges Braque, the founder of the Cubist movement.
Pablo Picasso was the first child of Don Jose Ruiz Picasso and Maria Lopez. His full name was Pablo Diego Jose Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno Crispin Crispiniano de la Santisima Trinidad Ruiz Blasco Picasso Lopez. He chose the name of his mother, or chose from the Genoese painter Picasso Matteo (1794 Recco Genoa-1879) although he always denied.
Picasso's father was a painter and drawing teacher at the school of Málaga called "San Telmo". Pablo had two sisters, but no brother.
In 1891, Ruiz-Picasso family moved to La Coruna. Don Jose, the father, was appointed professor at La Lonja de Barcelona in 1895.
Picasso started painting at an early age, and he made his first pictures to eight years, including Picador (1889), his first oil painting, which he still refuses to separate.
During the summer of 1895, Pablo discovers Madrid and Barcelona. He spends his holidays in Malaga and returned by the sea in Barcelona. On this occasion, he directed the sea voyage. It was during the winter of 1895, he has directed his first major academic canvas: First Communion. In 1895, he entered the School of Fine Arts in Barcelona. Signing of the first name of his father, Ruiz Blasco, he finally chose to use the name of his mother, Picasso, from 1901. In 1896, he painted Science and Charity. During the summer, he spent, again, his holidays in Malaga. Picasso painted landscapes and bullfights.
In September 1897 he left for Madrid and triumph in October, the competition for admission to the San Fernando Academy.
He returned to Barcelona in June 1898, then left for Horta, the village of his friend Pallarès located south of the Ebro river, near the town of Gandesa. In February 1899, it is again back to Barcelona, where he fits in the middle of cabaret Els Quatre Gats, coffee flagship of the bohemian, and made the acquaintance of Jaime Sabartés and Carlos Casagemas. Picasso exhibit on 1 February 1900 at Els Quatre Gats.
He went to Paris with Casagemas in October, moved into the workshop of Nonell in Montmartre, meets merchant Pedro Manach and Berthe Weill and sells some pastels amateurs. He returned to Barcelona on December 20, with Casagemas Picasso took with him in Malaga.
In mid-January 1901, Picasso left for Madrid. On February 17, Casagemas, after trying to kill his lover Germaine who was a dancer volage the Moulin Rouge, commits suicide in Paris. Picasso, shaken by the death of his friend paint a painting The Death of key Casegemas which will determine greatly its transition to the blue period, tinged with pain, sadness and referring to the great Spanish. In April 1901, he returned to Barcelona, and then in May, he departed in Paris and moved to 130 ter Boulevard de Clichy, where Casagemas had his workshop.
The blue period corresponds to the years 1901-1904: the name comes from the fact that blue is the dominant hue of his paintings from this period, which began with the suicide of his friend, Carlos Casagemas, which is why it is marked by the themes of death, old age and poverty, but does not stop it from being satirical. The first table in this period was "the death of Casagemas" inspired by the death of his girlfriend in Spain. The poor, the blind beggars and are widely described in the paintings of this period are: Dama in Eden Concert (1903), La Vida (1903), Las Dos hermanas (1904). It may be added that Picasso painting his paintings expresses melancholy.
The pink period (see below) will be, it is significantly more cheerful: he uses colors such as red and pink.
Between June 25 and July 14, 1901, Picasso and Iturrino make an exhibition at the Vollard gallery in Paris. Picasso met the poet Max Jacob. During the winter, he painted blue Self (Paris, Musée Picasso).
In late January 1902, he went to Barcelona. The gallery Berthe Weill, exhibits from 1 to April 15 works by Picasso and Lemaire. He returned to Paris in October with Sebastian Junyer. And it demonstrates for the first time his paintings blue from 15 November to 15 December in a group exhibition at Berthe Weill.
In January 1903, Picasso is again in Barcelona. In the spring, he began the canvas Life (Cleveland Museum of Fine Arts).
Beginning in 1905, he moved to Paris at Bateau-Lavoir, in the studio left by Paco Durrio. There he met his first companion: Fernande Olivier. This is the beginning of the period rose. As before, is the use of "shades rougées" which explains the name. The themes are the joy and existential anxiety. It remains dominated by melancholy and love, there are also many references to the world of zoo and circus. He painted masks, harlequins, tamers and clowns. Picasso privilégia during this period the work on the line, drawing, rather than on the color ... It was also the time of maternity roses.
Picasso became acquainted with Guillaume Apollinaire and Andrew Salmon.
From February 25 to March 6, 1905, Picasso exhibit in the gallery Serrurier, his early paintings roses. In the spring, he painted Les Saltimbanques (Washington, National Gallery). During the summer, he made a trip to Schoorl Holland, and painted the Three Dutchie (Paris, Musée National d'Art Moderne, the filing Picasso Museum).
In the fall, he met Gertrude and Leo Stein. We are beginning to find his paintings in the theme of death Harlequin. Gertrude Stein presents Matisse, in the winter 1906. The Ambroise Vollard gallery owner buys most of the paintings roses in March. In May, he left with Fernande Olivier to Barcelona, and then during the summer to Gósol, remote village high-Catalonia. This visit will have a major impact in the work of Picasso, whose paintings and books Gósol mark the beginnings of his Cubist revolution of the following year. The theme of the two brothers appear.
The portrait of Gertrude Stein (New York, Museum of Modern Art), started in the winter, is finally completed thanks to a painting by Cezanne, "Madame Cezanne in the range" as Gertrude Stein had gained at the show fall in 1904 .
From 1907 to 1914, he directed with Georges Braque painting to be called "Cubist". They are characterized by a search on the geometry and shapes: all objects are divided and reduced to simple geometric shapes, often squares. This means in effect that an object is not represented as it appears visibly, but by codes corresponding to its actual known. The Cubism is also represented on a two-dimensional canvas an object from outer space. Picasso breaks the image into multiple facets (or cubes, hence the name Cubism) and destroyed the forms of real plunge into strange shapes sometimes (like a figure on a half-face, and on the other later). This technique, initiated by Picasso and Braque, fit many imitators such as Juan Gris, Francis Picabia, Brancusi, Delaunay, Albert Gleizes.
The work is founder of cubism Les Demoiselles d'Avignon. This painting was begun during the winter 1906-1907, and was completed in early July 1907.
In early summer, Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler made a first visit to the Bateau-Lavoir. In October, there is a Cezanne retrospective at the Salon d'Automne. During the winter of 1908, Picasso painted L'Amitie (Leningrad, Hermitage), Nu debout (Boston Fine Arts Museum). He stayed at the Rue-des-Bois, a village 60 km north of Paris, during the summer and in October, he proposed the final version of Three Women (Leningrad, Hermitage).
In May 1909, Picasso goes to Barcelona, and Horta de Ebro with Fernande Olivier. There, he painted landscapes (New York, Museum of Modern Art). In Paris, in September, he moved to 11 Boulevard de Clichy, and makes sculptures: Head of Fernande (Paris, Musée Picasso). In 1910, he made portraits of Ambroise Vollard (Moscow Pushkin Museum), Uhde (St.Louis, Pulitzer Collection) and Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler (Chicago Art Institute). Picasso part to Céret, a village in French Catalonia, in July 1911. Fernande Olivier and Braque join him in August. On September 5, he returned to Paris. Picasso is missing from the room Cubist at the Salon d'Automne, which begins on 1 October.
In the fall, enters his life, Eva Gouel, which he calls "My beautiful" in several of his paintings.
Early collages and assemblages are first made during the winter 1912, Still Life of Cane Chair (Paris, Musée Picasso), guitar (s) fibre (Paris, Musée Picasso). On May 18, he went to Avignon Céret for June 25 and settled in Sorgues. He moved 242 Boulevard Raspail. Picasso and Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler signed on December 18 a letter contract. By March 10, 1913, it goes with Eva Gouel, Céret. The glass of absinthe is painted in the spring of 1914. After departing for Avignon, in June, he made a return to the portrait, in July. Éva died Dec. 14, 1915.
Three forms of cubism emerge: précubisme or cézannien cubism, analytical cubism and Synthetic Cubism.
The Ballets Russes
During the First World War, Picasso stayed in Rome with Jean Cocteau, from February 17, 1916. He settled Via Margutta, where he sees the Villa Medici. In addition to numerous drawn portraits he painted L'Italienne, L'Arlequin and wife to the neck. In May, Cocteau presents Diaghilev to Picasso. He worked as a designer for the ballet Parade of Leonid Massine and the Ballets Russes of Serge Diaghilev, with music by Erik Satie. He met Stravinsky and the dancer Olga Khokhlova who became his wife. In a decorative vein, Picasso produced several portraits of her and their son (Paul Pierrot in 1925).
In late March 1917, he travelled to Naples and Pompeii and returned to Paris in late April. On 18 May, the first Parade takes place at the Chatelet. Then in June, Picasso left for Madrid with the Diaghilev troupe and Olga, and on July 12, is a banquet given in his honour in Barcelona.
From 23 January to 15 February 1918, with Matisse Picasso exhibits in Paul Guillaume. He married Olga to the Russian church in Paris, July 12. Cocteau, Apollinaire and Max Jacob are witnesses. During a visit to Biarritz, he painted The Bathers (Paris, Musée Picasso).
In May 1919, Picasso went to London to work in ballet Le Tricorne to music Manuel de Falla. During the summer, he stays at Biarritz at Madame Errazuriz then moved with Olga in Saint-Raphaël (French Riviera).
His son Paulo was born on February 4, 1921. During the summer, he moved with Olga and Paulo at Fontainebleau. There painted Women in the fountain (Paris, Picasso Museum and New York Museum of Modern Art) and the three musicians (New York Museum of Modern Art and Philadelphia Museum of Art). In June 1922, during a stay in Dinard (Brittany, Côte de la Manche), he painted Two women running on the beach (The race) (Paris, Musée Picasso). Then, in December, he directed the scene for The Cocteau Antigone, created by Charles Dullin at the Theatre de l'Atelier. In 1923, he made a new summer residence on the Cote d'Azur (Cap d'Antibes), and painted the pan flute (Paris, Musée Picasso). And in 1924, in the summer, while he is at the Villa La Vigie in Juan-les-Pins (French Riviera), he does his book of drawings he paints abstract and Paul Harlequin (Paris, Musée Picasso).
During this period of the years 1920, in a climate of worldly recognition, he painted tables marked by a return to figuration and classicism: Three Women at the Fountain (1921), and works inspired by mythology as the Pan Flutes (1923).
The year 1925 was that of a radical break in the production of the painter. He painted tables showing very violent creatures deformed, convulsive, taken in the rets of a hysterical rage: Woman in an Armchair (1926) and sat Bather (1930). The influence of surrealist poets was undeniable in this desire to portray of the Interior hell. However, it adopted a more pragmatic approach than the "dream modelled on the canvas" of the surrealists.
In June-July 1925, he completed Dance and painted Le Baiser. On 14 November, he participated in the first surrealist exhibition in the Galerie Pierre. In 1926, he painted the painter and his model, which marks his meeting with Marie-Therese Walter at the end of this year, while it is still minor. He makes the guitar (s) to nails.
It executes large collage of the Minotaur in January 1928. Picasso then needs technical assistance, in particular for achieving the models of the Monument to Guillaume Apollinaire he received orders in 1922. A few years earlier he had renewed his friendship with the ferronier and Catalan sculptor Julio González, met in Barcelona time Els Quatre Gats, and like him living in Paris since 1900. Picasso directed naturally to him, and they begin to fall in 1928 until July 1932, a fruitful collaboration technical sculptures welded wrought iron and.In spring 1929 he sculpts iron welded La Femme au garden in the workshop of González, who later realized the bronze in 1932. That year also recent vacation in Dinard. He paints the Grand naked red chair, and in February 1930, Crucifixion. In the fall of 1930, Marie-Therese moved to 44, rue de la Boetie. He bought the Chateau de Boisgeloup, near Gisors, 80 km north-west of Paris, in June, and will install them until the end of 1932.
Two figures by the sea is painted in January 1931, and March, Still Life on a pedestal. That year also saw the publication of two major books: Ovid's Metamorphoses (Lausanne, Skira) and the Chief workforce unknown de Balzac (Paris, Ambroise Vollard).
In 1932, Girl front of the mirror is finished. A retrospective at the Galerie Georges Petit, then at the Kunsthaus Zurich, takes place in June. Picasso works in Boisgeloup with carved heads after Marie-Therese and the series of drawings after Crucifixion of Grünewald.
The first issue of Minotaur with a coverage of Picasso, appears on May 25, 1933. He spent the holidays in the summer 1933 in Cannes with Olga and Paulo. In September, he painted at Boisgeloup, The Death of the bullfighter.
From June to September 1934, he made a series of bullfights, painted, drawn and engraved. In August, he travelled to Spain with Olga and Paulo, and went to the bullfights in Madrid and Burgos. He visited the Museum of Catalan Art in Barcelona. He makes a series of sculptures textured cast: Woman to Woman foliage and orange. In spring 1935, the gallery exhibits Pierre paper glue. Minotauromachie is engraved. It separates Olga in June, and October 5, born Maya Picasso, with his daughter Marie-Therese Walter.
On March 25, 1936 saw the start of Picasso secret with Marie-Therese and Maya to Juan-les-Pins. He gouaches and drawings on the theme of the Minotaur. That same year, at the beginning of the Spanish Civil War, he was appointed director of the Prado Museum in Madrid. In early August, in part Mougins Picasso and Dora Maar joined there.
Guernica and pacifism
In the wake of the bombing, April 26, 1937, Guernica during the Spanish Civil War, horrified by the crime, Picasso embarked on the creation of one of his most famous works: Guernica. It symbolises the horror of war and anger felt by Picasso in the death of many innocent victims, caused by the bombing of Nazi planes at the request of General Franco.
For him to Paris during World War II, allegedly met Picasso in his studio German officers very interested in his work. The officers saw the famous painting Guernica asked him: "It was you who did this? "Picasso reportedly replied:" No ... You .
Very opposed to the war, he painted the famous Dove of Peace (1949) on the occasion of his accession to the World Council of Peace. He receives under this heading an international prize for peace in 1955.
Guernica was exhibited in the Spanish Pavilion of the World Exposition.
In October-December 1937, he painted a woman crying (Paris, Picasso Museum), then in 1938 made a large collage, Women at their toilette (Paris, Musée National d'Art Moderne).
In July 1938, it goes in Mougins with Dora Maar. Beginning in July 1939, with Dora Maar, he left at Man Ray in Antibes, where the table Night Fishing at Antibes (New York, Museum of Modern Art). From September 1939 to early 1940, he was in Royan, Sequence Femmes au chapeau.
Between 1942 and 1943 he directed the assembly, head of a bull (Paris, Musée Picasso), L'Aubade (Paris, Musée National d'Art Moderne), L'Homme au mouton (Paris, Musée Picasso).
He meets Françoise Gilot in May 1943.