OdysséeL'Odyssée (ancient Greek Ὀδυσσεία / Odusseía) is an epic attributed to the bard Homer, with 12 109 hexametres dactylic, divided into 24 songs. It is believed that it was written after the Iliad, the late eighth century BC. AD It is regarded as one of the greatest masterpieces of world literature and one of the two founders poems (with the Iliad) of European civilization.
Summary of the story
It recounts the fall of Troy and the return of Odysseus, King of Ithaca, after the war about the Iliad. The title Odyssey (ancient Greek Ὀδυσσεία / Odusseía) is formed on the Greek name of Ulysses (Ὀδυσσεύς / Odusseús). The subject is summarized in the first stanza of the poem:
Ἄνδρα μοι ἔννεπε, Μοῦσα, πολύτροπον, ὃς μάλα πολλὰ
πλάγχθη, ἐπεὶ Τροΐης ἱερὸν πτολίεθρον ἔπερσε
πολλῶν δ 'ἀνθρώπων ἴδεν ἄστεα καὶ νόον ἔγνω,
πολλὰ δ 'ὅ γ' ἐν πόντῳ πάθεν ἄλγεα ὃν κατὰ θυμόν,
ἀρνύμενος ἥν τε ψυχὴν καὶ νόστον ἑταίρων.
"O Muse, storytelling me the adventure of invention:
those who plundered Troy, who for years wandered
Seeing many cities, discovering many uses,
with much anguish in his soul on Wednesday
to defend his life and the return of its sailors."
"This is the man of a thousand towers, Muse, he must tell me
As one who wandered when, Troade he had plundered the holy city,
Anyone who visited the cities of both men and knew their mind
One who, on the seas, passed by so many anxieties,
In struggling to survive and reduce its people."
The construction of the poem is to succeed three times ", whose articulation sometimes problematic (especially at the chronology: the change of views between Odysseus and Telemachus involves detention time for the person who is neglected, a" dead time ") and differences rather sensitive style (but not in the language, except for the 624 latest worms) have long thought that it was three separate works, which were collected retrospectively and welded into the Odyssey present:
* The Telemachie (songs I to IV): Telemachus hand ask for news of her father in Sparta and Pylos, to interview Nestor and Menelaus. Meanwhile, the contenders in Ithaca, festoient until Penelope choose one of them, and plot against Telemachus.
* Stories (Ulysses) in Alcinous (songs V-XII) collected by King Alcinous after its sinking, Ulysses heard a bard recite the episode of the Trojan horse (vocals VIII), then recounts his own adventures .
* Revenge Ulysses (XIII songs to XXIV): returned to Ithaca, Ulysses is recognizing his family, killing the contenders and bring peace to the island.
The majority of Homeric currently tends to admit the unit's overall work and allocates disparate observable in both the oral composition and the ambition of narrative purpose of the poet.
The story begins qu'Ulysse is held captive on the island of the nymph Calypso is unable to return home to find his wife Penelope. All gods are favorable, except Poseidon, which wants him for making her blind son Polyphemus (episode narrated in song IX). So that is party feasting Poseidon in Ethiopia, others gather and Athena asks Zeus to allow return of Ulysses. Zeus consents and sends Hermes ask Calypso to release Ulysses.
Athena went to the island of Ithaca to advise Telemachus, the son of Ulysses, assemble Acheyns to denounce the contenders Penelope, and then you go to Pylos and Sparta getting news on the return of his father.
The second day, Telemachus tries unsuccessfully to appeal to the conscience of suitors who refuse with contempt. Telemachus borrows a ship and, together with Mentor, went to Pylos night.
At Pylos, he was greeted the next day by Nestor who has no news of Ulysses. At the request of Telemachus, Nestor described the death of Agamemnon.
Telemachus from the tank overnight to Sparta where he was received by Menelaus and Helen. The sixth day, Menelaus describes his return from Troy and announced that Proteus, the old man of the sea, "he said qu'Ulysse still live in captivity on an island. It invites Telemachus to stay a few days, which he refuses even if they remain longer in Sparta. Meanwhile in Ithaca, the suitors learn that Telemachus went in search of his father and decide to set a trap.
The seventh day, back in Olympia, Athena reiterates its request to release Odysseus and Hermes was sent to present the message to Calypso. To maintain Calypso and Hermes succeeds that of Ulysses and Calypso. The hero prefers to return to his wife, although it is fatal (circa 218-219).
Zeus announces qu'Ulysse join the Pheaciens after 20 days of navigation and that they lead to the Ithaca.
Ulysses built a raft of fortune with which he will leave the twelfth day. After sailing 18 days, he saw Corcyra. However, Poseidon raises a storm against him and can not dock the 32nd day.
The next day, according to an arrangement of Athena, Ulysses made the acquaintance of Nausicaa, daughter of Alcinous, King pheacien. Ulysses address a long speech to Nausicaa and the latter agrees to help.
With the help of Athena, Alcinous receives the palace and agrees to help, Ulysses describes his arrival in Pheacie, without revealing his identity.
The next day, Ulysses Alcinous calls to a banquet in his honor. A bard sings the quarrel of Odysseus and Achilles and Odysseus is taken to tears this remember. To change the ideas of its host, Alcinous orders impromptu games. Then resumed its bard songs, including the story of the Trojan horse. Ulysses is then betrayed, and agrees to tell his journey.
(Beginning the story of Ulysses)
It becomes the story of the journey of two years between the fall of Troy and his captivity on the island of Calypso. It recounts the start with a fleet of twelve vessels when the winds pushed towards the city of Cicon, Ismar. They took the city by surprise and began to pack. Few eager to leave the same evening they were attacked by Cicon who had been seeking help from neighbors and had fled in haste. From there, the winds prevailed among Lotophages, probably in an unknown world. The people of a great welcome and hospitality offered them their food: the lotos. Anyone who ate of the fruit not wanted to leave more and Ulysses had forcible some members of its fleet. They naviguerent then to the island where the Cyclops, Polyphemus by prisoners that was devoured, they were able to escape by piercing his single eye, thus the wrath of Poseidon (the father of Polyphemus)
(Following the story of Ulysses)
The companions of Odysseus himself and left for the island of Aeolus, god of wind, which tried to help them return home by offering a gourd where Ulysses god enferma all winds that could prevent them from arriving safely and providing a gentle breeze that would lead to Ithaca but by misfortune, one of his compatriots, a little too curious, opened the bottle and freed on the spot all adverse winds s'acharnerent on their ship and poor the away from their goal at all, by leading to Telepyle, the city of Lestrygons, people cannibal. Ulysses could not escape as the vessel to the island of Circe, where they stayed one year. This enchanting opened its doors to a small group led by Euryloque who, distrustful, was the only one to remain outside. The men who came were turned into pigs during the meal and Euryloque returned to the ship. Ulysses ran to save his companions, Hermes encountering along the way under the guise of a handsome young man who gave him an antidote, the moly. The magician, loving Ulysses, decided to report his men in their human forms and invited them to enjoy its hospitality.
After a year, Ulysses decided to leave. Circe invited them to visit the Hell that the ghost of Tiresias tells them the way back.
(Following the story of Ulysses)
Cimmerien countries landed in, Ulysses proceeded to sacrifice, as indicated by Circe. Tiresias arrived, Ulysses and learned that they should not touch the cattle of Helios, god of the sun, if they wanted to go home. He could also talk to the ghost of his mother who told them Penelope awaited always faithfully. Finally, he saw his former comrades, including Achilles, which expressed its regret to life, and the damned of tartar.
(End of the story of Ulysses)
They returned see Circe, then went back into the sea, avoided the Sirens, Scylla and Charybdis despite the loss of some members of the crew. Once on the island of Trinacrie, hungry and unable to leave because of the storm, they devorerent herds of Helios, which saw the top of his chariot. Only Ulysses, who did not eat cattle, escaped punishment by Zeus who made the capsized vessel with all his men. Ulysses floating on a raft for ten days, reached the island of Calypso where he spent the next eight years.
The next day, the thirty-fifth, the Pheaciens offer a ship, crew and present. The evening after a banquet, Ulysses leaving the people to return home.
The next day he reached his homeland. Athena, first disguised as young shepherd, the hosts. It informs the shenanigans of the suitors of Penelope and the old man in disguise so that he can see what is happening at home. He then regain its loyal Porcher, Eume.
Ulysses, disguised as a beggar, is greeted by Eume that offers hospitality. The latter refuses to believe qu'Ulysse is still alive, despite claims of begging.
Meanwhile, Athena hand look at Telemachus Lacedemone where he remained for a month. She advises him to return to his country and go to Eume. Following his advice, he escaped an ambush and arrived two days later in the porch.
The thirty-ninth day, he met his father so that no one has yet recognized under the disguise. After listening Eume, Telemachus asks Penelope to go to prevent his return. Once the servant left, Athena reveals the identity of Ulysses to his son and the two men set up a conspiracy to get rid of greedy suitors. The evening Eume returned to his cabin where Ulysses has taken his disguise.
The next day, Telemachus part to the city where his mother received with open arms. Without him prove that his father is back, he informed Penelope the nymph Calypso held on the island. In the afternoon, Ulysses and Eume reach the city and Odysseus poses as a beggar. The old dog of Ulysses, Argos, died in recognizing his master. After some minor conflicts during which the contenders insult the beggar, Ulysses found Telemachus.
IROS, begging attitre of Ithaca, Ulysses insult disguised as a beggar. A brawl broke out, including Ulysses winner. Guided by Athena, Penelope is the suitors, and thus also to Ulysses. The insults against Ulysses continue, but the banquet ends in relative calm.
Odysseus and Telemachus seized weapons hanging from the walls of the palace and place them in a safe place. Ulysses then spoke to Penelope without it the recognition. She says she does not believe he is dead and she does not want to remarry. It had rejected suitors, making them believe they weave a shroud for the father of her husband but hive each night the work done during the day. Penelope fate by ordering nanny Euryclée to clean the feet of his guest. Recognizing a scar on the leg of Ulysses, the nurse understands that it is their king but it promises to remain secret.
Penelope returns and announces to his guest that consent to marry one who will be able to bend the arc of her husband and send an arrow through twelve axes aligned, as did Ulysses.
41 days, on the occasion of the feast of Apollo, the banquet begins. Ulysses again suffered insults and mockery. During the meal, before the contenders are a disorder. Théoclymene prophesies sudden end their deadly, and left the meeting on teasing.
Penelope is preparing weapons and advised its suitors for its decision. However, none of them can even bend the arc of Ulysses. It signaled to two of his servants who had agreed to close the doors. Ulysses band arc smoothly and successfully tested. Telemachus, weapons, joins his father.
Ulysses lampshade Antinoos before being recognized, then it starts to kill the suitors one after the other with the help of Telemachus. Athena appears and influence the battle. Ulysses then hang servants accomplices of the contenders and purifies his palace in sulfur.
In the evening, Ulysses joined Penelope still doubt that. In agreement with Telemachus, it delays the announcement of the news of the death of the suitors. Penelope met her husband to the test by lying on their beds. Ulysses, revealing the characteristics of the bed, is finally acknowledged. They fall into the arms and recount the suffering they endured during all these years.
Many believe that Homer's poem ends with the authentic XXIII to 296, which refers simply carnal reunion of both spouses and that everything that was added later, as the song X of the Iliad (the Dolonne) .
In a debate extremely complex and technical, two facts are irrefutable:
- The grammarians of Alexandria and Aristophanes Aristarchus recognized by the "end" or "run," πέρας, the Odyssey, for reasons that do not appear to have been documentaries (ie because they knew copies of the poem s 'XXIII in completing 296), but because of a literary verdict
- The 624 final to make the Odyssey sound very different from the rest: the narrative short position on key issues (the conflict with the families of the pretenders [XXIV 413-548]) then it extends very long on less immediately crucial details (arrival of contenders for the souls of Hell [XXIV 1-204] scene that brutally interrupted the action); style is much less happy than anywhere else, often barely more than a ronron formulas.
Quite a number of linguistic facts, including new words or employed in non-Homeric sense, can not be explained if the end of the Odyssey is true, so back to the Archaic period. From this point of view, the demolition by Hartmut Erbse arguments against the authenticity learned the language and style record; an excellent English version exists has been the subject of an exhaustive rebuttal, for the reunion of Ulysses and his father Laertes, by J.-F. Nardelli.
As in the case of Prometheus chained attributed to Aeschylus, it is important to remember that the authenticity of the end of the Odyssey can not be taken for granted.
Hermes led to the souls of Hell contenders, other people talk to them the news. For its part, Ulysses found Laertes, his old father, and it is recognized. As the new has finally spread in the city, families of contenders, led by the father of Antinoos try to avenge their dead. Athena comes when peace and order between the two camps.(W3C)
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