The architect is the professional building whose function is to design and supervise the elaboration of a work of architecture on behalf of an owner who may be an individual, corporation or public authority.
It may be a natural person or legal entity: (Societe d'architecture ,...). In France to exercise it must be a graduate in architecture, covered by an insurance professional and registered in some countries in Table architects of the country where construction.
The tasks of the architect, called project management, are defined by a convention that went before with the owner and which defines the scope of its mission, which may cover different types of projects: house, public building, commercial or industrial estate, park rehabilitation, maintenance, planning, etc..
In France, some architects are staff and do not project management work but control board and as architects of buildings in France, send architects, architects, consultants for advice architecture of Planning and Environment (CAUE), architects, consultants of the Ministry of Equipment and Housing who shall hold office in the central government or of departmental equipment. They intended to carry out missions in the implementation of a policy of cities, neighborhoods and housing, improving the architectural and urban quality, promotion, dissemination of knowledge - how and the innovation.
The conditions of use of an architect in France
Law No. 77-2 of 3 January 1977, amended on architecture has set the conditions for architects.
* Article 3. Anyone wishing to undertake the work submitted for a building permit must enlist an architect to draw up the architectural project to which the building permit application, without prejudice to recourse to other persons, either individually or team, design. This obligation does not use an architect for extended missions.
The architectural project mentioned above sets of plans and documents the location of buildings, their composition, organization and expression of their volume and the choice of materials and colors. Even if the architect does not lead, the employer must put in a position in terms of the contract to ensure that documents and executing the works in progress with the provisions of the architectural project developed by him. If these provisions are not met, the Architect shall notify the developer.
* Article 4 amended by Act No. 2005-157 of 23 February 2005 art. 30 (J.O. 24). Notwithstanding Article 3 above, are not required to use an architect individuals or farm limited liability single shareholder who state that they want to build or change, for themselves, a small building which characteristics, including maximum floor area shall be determined by decree of the Council of State. These characteristics may be different depending on the destination of the buildings.
The use of the architect is not required for the work subject to building permit or authorization, which concern only the construction and equipment of the interior spaces of buildings and commercial or windows that are limited at times there is no visible changes from the outside.
* Article 5. The construction of models and their variants, industrialized or not, capable of repeated use must, before any market, be prepared by an architect under the conditions laid down in Article 3 above regardless of the master of 'book that uses them.
The different types of tasks of the architect
Decree No. 93-1268 of 29 November 1993 on the project management work entrusted by owners of public service law defines in detail the various tasks of the architect. This decree does not apply to the maintenance, repair or restoration carried out on buildings under section 1 of Chapter I of Title II of Book VI of the Code of heritage. New arrangements by the Act of 09 December 2004 have indeed clarified the modalities of application.
Are therefore the provisions relating to the private contractor for:
* Development work or equipment, whatever the status of the building (protected or not under the law of 31 December 1913 on historic monuments),
* Work on listed buildings or buildings not protected under the law of 31 December 1913.
Project management of maintenance and restoration of listed buildings is itself the competence of the architect of the buildings of France or the chief architect of historic jurisdiction.
The SRU law n ° 2000-1208 of 13 December 2000 on the architects of the buildings in France, was amended by Act No. 2004-809 of 13 August 2004 on local freedoms and responsibilities. Article 100 states "that from 1 January 2005, the architects of the buildings in France can not carry mission design and project management as a liberal. The missions commenced before that date may be continued until 31 December 2007. . Law No. 2007-148 of 2 February 2007 to modernize the civil service has maintained its provisions.
The work of the architect
His work is generally an order of the result of a competition or of the relations, even more often word of mouth. It will outline a proposed architecture (which imposes more constraints than the construction on a "type"): He must think the building and its environment. The work is to integrate the building of the predefined functions (programming), taking care to be and remain in an initial budget, to respect the local laws in terms of safety in the use of the building, a structure built project that follows the rules of the territorial authorities and implement the construction in adapting to the terrain generally chosen by the sponsor. The architect usually follows the wishes of the sponsor making its sensibilities, skills and adding some solutions not foreseen, which features "better life" in whose interests they are at the discretion of the purchaser , developer or end user. And may possibly be reflected in his creations his vision of society and his era, in other words "what it feels like being the new needs of society ..." It sometimes heavily involved in the Planning, discipline is no longer reserved for urban planners, but open to any architect concerned with the balance of neighborhoods in the city.
Many other disciplines are related to that of the architect (urban planning, landscape, geography, ecology, political science, among others), and often the subject of specialization (DEA, DESS, master, doctoral or professional training center). Are formed of architects and urban planners, landscape architects, engineers, architects, architectural designers, architects and ecologists. Some of these specialists treat rather a legal and normative part of the building or industrial process of manufacturing an object, not the graphical part of the project, working in the town planning, landscape design, industrial design.
How is the architect?
The work of the architect is making a building specified in the contract architect who describes his "mission". It includes all or part of 3 successive phases.
1. design includes the establishment of general building form, layout, constructive principle. It results in drawings, models or maquettes.
2. phase studies that includes the calculations (foundations, etc..), technical studies (from water pipes, provision of lifts, etc..), optimization of energy consumption, durability, etc.. These studies are frequently conducted with the assistance of engineers specializing in a specific area, the architect in this case playing the role of "leader." They are translated into technical classifications (referred to as "narrative") and technical drawings that are very specific.
3. the direction of enforcement. The architect organize a tender to enable companies to work to establish the corresponding estimate for the work as provided by the descriptions and plans. The client chose the companies and directors enter into a contract with each of them. Finally, the architect will manage the project and coordinate the business of film-makers so that the building meets the expectations of the customer.
Variant: the architect-builder. It designs and technical studies as above. As against it provides more overall responsibility (turnkey) for work on the building being the sole interlocutor of the client to whom it provides - on his own responsibility - the final price, the implementation period and the satisfaction of needs. For his client he is "General Contractor" ie design + work + studies.
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