Drama in Education
Drama (Latin) drama borrowed from ancient Greek "action (theatrical) play" etymologically means any action on stage. It is a theatrical genre characterized by the mixture of tones (refusal to separate the comic and tragic), the introduction of realistic elements or in a comic or tragic pathos.
There are several types of dramas, the most famous are:
* The satyr, like the ancient Greek theater to differentiate from the tragedy and comedy.
* The liturgical drama, medieval religious drama.
* The Elizabethan drama, traditional English drama including Shakespeare is the most famous representative.
* The heroic drama, epic theater especially popular during the Restoration.
* The bourgeois drama, telling scene moralistic family conflicts.
* The romantic drama, combining the sublime and grotesque in the words of Victor Hugo, who is the master.
The word drama on all theatrical genres, or a tragic event. A playwright is a playwright or a professional theater. The drama is a set of rules and mechanisms that apply to playwriting.
The romantic drama is a genre that was born in the early nineteenth century following the bourgeois drama of the eighteenth century. This novel marks the willingness of playwrights to overcome the traditional rules (rules of classicism) as too restrictive, especially the (rule of three units, except unit of action). Victor Hugo is recognized as one of the main theorists of the romantic drama in which he outlined in his preface to Cromwell. Similarly, Stendhal (The Red and Black, Vanina Vanini) defines as from Victor Hugo: "this kind is a painting full of nature." In the romantic drama, the desire for modernity and realism prevails, sometimes it forsakes verse for prose and focuses on the picturesque and the emotion is mixed, in the words of Hugo, "the sublime and the grotesque . "There are neither rules nor models," he writes. The romantic drama combines three essential aspects: the historical drama, human drama and social drama.
Many playwrights will give such acclaim, including Musset (Lorenzaccio, 1834), Vigny (Chatterton, 1835) and of course Hugo (Hernani, 1830, Ruy Blas, 1838; preface to Cromwell, 1827).
According to Victor Hugo, the three ages of the world are three moments of the "poetry": the ode, the epic drama. Primitive times are lyrical, ancient times are epic, modern times are dramatic. The drama becomes an end point, allowing the whole of reality: "the theater is a point of view. Everything that exists in this world, in history, in man, and everything must be 's think about it, but under the baton of art, "says Hugo still in his preface to Cromwell. A new aesthetics, new drama: the freedom of art, a claim of all, the mix of genres and tones. For the Romantics finally, the magnitude of the tragedy is inseparable from its mission of national, social, human. The moral is never absent, it will be the weakness of its kind.
The satyr play is a theatrical and literary genre of ancient Greece, closely associated with the tragedy, which depicts satyrs.
In the classical period in Athens, authors must submit the contest three tragedies and a satyr play, the four pieces being played by the same actors. According to tradition, some of Pratinas Phlius (late sixth and early fifth century BC.) Is the inventor of the genre. It would have acted to preserve a place in the Greek theater, Dionysus and satyrs, ousted from the classical period of the tragedy, to the dismay of some fans. Plutarch reports: "When Phrynichus developed and Aeschylus tragedy to include mythological intrigue and disaster, the response was:" What connection with Dionysos? (Table Talk, I, 1, 5).
The genus is poorly known, because few works have survived. The only drama is complete the Cyclops of Euripides. We also have large pieces of netting Shooters and spectators at the Isthmus of Aeschylus and Sophocles Bloodhounds. We can also fit into this category the Alcestis of Euripides tragedy happy ending, presented in 438 BC. AD in fourth position, in place of the satyr.
According to the pseudo-Demetrius Phalereus, the satyr play was a "tragedy fun" (Style, 169). It features a chorus of satyrs, nudes and ithyphallic led by Silenus and face a mythological hero, according to a structure similar to that of tragedy: the prologue, the chorus entered, and exit events. The scene takes place in a wilderness. In the Cyclops, the satyrs are slaves of Polyphemus, son of Poseidon, Odysseus and Achaean warriors that accompany it, become prisoners of the Cyclops, help them to escape with them. In Bloodhounds, satyrs, slaves from who knows who offer their help to Apollo, to whom the infant Hermes comes to steal his cattle.
In the fourth century BC. BC, the tragic poets cease to present a satirical drama with their tragic trilogy. In fact, the drama freed itself to become an event in itself, eg the Dionysia of Delos or Samos Heraea Games.
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