Romania (Romanian România) is a state of Eastern Europe at the crossroads of Central Europe, member of the European Union and NATO.
With a Latin heritage, the country is surrounded by Slavic countries like Bulgaria, Serbia or Ukraine, and Hungary. It is bordered by the Black Sea to the southeast. North-east, a small country also in Romanian-speaking majority, the Republic of Moldova, is no longer part of Romania since 1944. Romania, which is the 7th most populous country of the European Union and the 9th by its size, is also a strategic country for the European Union because of its close relations with the countries of the Black Sea.
The creation of the modern Romanian state in the nineteenth century, its current territory of the twentieth century, and follows the meeting of the old medieval principalities: Wallachia, Moldavia (1859) and Transylvania (1918). But the Romanians identify themselves primarily by their Latin language and consider themselves happy as the heirs of the ancient Dacian (Thracian country's north, conquered by the Roman emperor Trajan in 106) and the Roman Empire.
Another component of the Romanian identity derives from the Byzantine Empire, which the Romanians have inherited their faith, Orthodox over 85%. In modern times, is the France of the Enlightenment that inspired the creation of modern Romania, with its ideals of emancipation and progress. Totalitarianism were subsequently marked the country: nationalism and fascism in the 1930s and communism of the Soviet Union in the second half of the twentieth century until 1989.
During the transition period leading to accession to the European Union on 1 January 2007, Romania has become one of the allies of the United States in the fight against terrorism. During this period of contradictions, Romanian society has been overwhelmed in the political, economic and cultural currents between traditional and modern trends. The period saw the emergence of a large number of companies and entrepreneurs who are not all from the nomenklatura. Even if these companies are not very competitive internationally, the development is visible trade prosperous, booming construction (and the number of cars), the lines of communication improved (although the choice of all - Road to the detriment of rail will result in chronic congestion), household equipment modernized ...
The Romanian, of Latin syntax, approximately 18% of words from the Slavic neighbors, but 75% of the vocabulary is of Latin origin. The Romanians are the relative ease with Italian (and even the Neapolitan) even without being taught, and more than one quarter of Romania's population understands and speaks French. Romania is an important Francophone countries, it has absorbed the XIth Francophone Summit in 2006.
In total there are 25 million Romanian-including 19.3 in Romania (22.3 million inhabitants) and 3 in the Republic of Moldova (about 4.5 million inhabitants). Approximately two million Romanian citizens have another language than Romanian: Hungarian (1 434 377 citizens), gypsy (535 250 citizens), German, Russian, Turkish, Greek, Armenian ... A million and half citizens Moldovans also: Russian, Ukrainian, Turkish, Bulgarian. And two million by Romanian citizens are neither citizens nor Romanians Moldovans: they can be citizens Ukrainians, Serbs (main countries minorities Romanian-historical), Russians (after deportation), Italians, Spaniards, French, Canadians, Americans, Australians, Germans, Swiss or Belgian (main countries of the diaspora).
The people who ended up being the Romanians have a long history since the onset of Dacian (Thracian north), conquered by the Roman Empire, whose domination lasted 150 years before retiring in mid-third century. South of the Danube against the Roman rule lasted for six centuries. The Latino population of the Danube basin and the Balkans, subject or Eastern Roman Empire (south of the Danube) or kingdoms "barbarians" (north of the Danube), will not state them before 1186 , when the foundation of the Regnum Valachorum (Kingdom of Vlachs) by dynasties Deleanu, Caloianu and Asen. Populated half of Bulgarians, the kingdom straddles both banks of the lower Danube lasted only 63 years before being replaced by tsarate Bulgarian (south of the Danube) and the Romanian Banat vassals of Hungary (in north of the Danube). The independence and merger of North Banat Danube gives the fourteenth century the principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia, which, after four centuries of autonomy under the Ottoman influence, in turn merged in 1859 to form the Old Kingdom of Romania, which total independence from the Ottoman Empire will be recognized in 1878. The Kingdom of Romania was officially born in 1881.
The end of World War I see Transylvania (Hungary since 1867 in the Austro-Hungarian), Bukovina, Bessarabia and part of Banat vote their connection to the Greater Romania, which replaces the Old Kingdom. At the beginning of World War II Romania was pro-Allied with his Anglophile King Charles II who fired on the fascist Iron Guard, tried and executed their leader Corneliu Zelea Codreanu, and secure borders of the kingdom by the United Kingdom and France. For the Black Sea, Romania has transferred the army and the Polish government in British territory, in Alexandria, the fleet of MRS escorted the navy.
Ally with Stalin by the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact of 1939, Hitler considered Romania, therefore, rightly, as a hostile power, and the summer of 1940 after the collapse of France, forced him to give Bessarabia to the USSR, northern Transylvania to Hungary and Dobrogea southern Bulgaria. Romania retains only half of its territory in 1918. Subsequently, Hitler and the Iron Guard overthrew the king and replaced him with Marshal Ion Antonescu (he was tried and executed at the end of the war). During Operation Barbarossa, Antonescu urges Romania to Germany's side in June 1941 to recover Bessarabia. But it does not merely this: it is occupied by the Romanian army "Transnistria" (part of Podolia Ukraine), he indulged in atrocities and sends the Romanian army to massacre Stalingrad. A National Council of Resistance is formed between the guerrilla movements, the leaders of democratic political parties banned, and King Michael, who overthrew Antonescu in August 1944: Romania declares war on the Axis soldiers committing 550 000 l cons Germany. On March 6, 1945, a communist coup ends the government formed the Resistance, and King Michael was forced to abdicate in late 1947: the communist dictatorship then descends on the country until December 1989, killing 2 million civilian deaths (official figure) in 45 years. On Christmas Day 1989, the communist president Nicolae Ceauşescu and his wife are sentenced to death and executed after a controversial trial, during the coup of December 22, 1989.