Gay marriage or gay marriage means marriage for same sex. It offers couples of the same sex, same-sex couples the right to unite in the same way as couples of different sexes. It may refer to an extension of the concept of marriage or some form of union, endowed with its own regime.
If marriage between same sex existed in some ethnic groups, most companies do not provide this possibility. But in the early twenty-first century, an evolution of several laws has led in some states, the legal recognition of civil unions or marriages between persons of the same sex. Political debate that took place in those states raised related issues, particularly concerning the rights of cohabiting couples or married same-sex vis-a-vis the parentage and adoption.
French dictionaries offer a variety of definitions of marriage which may exclude the marriage of same-sex definition or to leave open the possibility. For example, the Treasury of the French Language Data (TLFi) indicates that marriage is the "union of a man and a woman dedicated by a series of acts of civil or sometimes religious [...]". Le Petit Robert, in his edition of 2001, designates marriage as "the lawful union of two persons as provided by law.
On July 15, 2010, ten countries have legalized gay marriage: The Netherlands (2000), Belgium (2003), Spain (2005), Canada (2005), South Africa (2006), Norway (2008), Sweden (2009 ), Portugal (2010), Iceland (2010) and Argentina (2010).
Positions of supporters and opponents
For supporters of gay marriage, in France there is a difference in legal treatment between heterosexual couples and homosexual couples. On behalf of a notion of equal rights indifferent emotional and sexual orientation, they require equal treatment which involves the lifting of the ban. The following arguments are advanced:
* To offer everyone the opportunity to start a family (many constitutions around the world give him the title of fundamental right)
* To allow same-sex families already existing (common law) to have a recognition of their family as such,
Conversely, opponents of gay marriage rather present marriage as a heterosexual specificity, where men and women are certainly equal, but not identical or interchangeable, particularly in relation to motherhood and its impact on the couple's life and professional life of the newlyweds.
Religious considerations may be present in the grounds of opposition. Confessions traditionally sanctified marriage between a man and a woman and condemn homosexual relations.
The issues of adoption, and more generally, recognition of gay parenting are also elements of the debate, separate but closely linked. Indeed the vast majority of opponents to gay marriage are also against recognition of same-sex parents.
They put forward as the main argument the family balance, since by definition a child is the fruit of the union of two parents of different sexes. The question is whether a learning environment consisting of two parents of the same sex does not harm the child and its development.
Studies are beginning to be made, including the United States, the numerous cases of children living under the responsibility of homosexual parents, especially when both parents are women.
These studies are still too recent to be confirmed because: it lacks a comprehensive study including a large number of children from different cultures, and looking back a generation. However, early studies did not demonstrate significant differences between these children and others, which would tend to reject the hypothesis of a negative effect.
It must be said that these studies meet critics (themselves criticized) very strong about how they are carried out, denouncing such a study sample consisting of weak or biased manner.
Compromise between cohabitation (or common-law) and marriage, they are typically but not exclusively created for same-sex couples with the objective to give rights equivalent to marriage.
Some see a growing recognition of homosexual couples and therefore not in favor of marriage. Others see it as a way to please both camps.
Fans can find an example of formalization of the life of homosexual couples. Opponents can see the quasi-systematic prohibition of adoption.
These civil unions thus raise a lot of fear and hope.
Gay Rights Worldwide
The countries or subdivisions where gay marriage is possible are minority.
Some animist ethnic marriages or authorize marriages between members of the same sex: sex between women remain banned in the context of these relationships (among the Nuer and the Yoruba, for example), while men have a common "complete "where sex is allowed (in the Navaho and Zuni for example).
In general, homosexuality was legalized almost everywhere in America, even without recognition at least civil pacts (except Guyana).
However, civil pacts are legalized in Uruguay in some states of Brazil, Argentina or the United States. They are also in the French overseas in America (French Guiana, Martinique, and Saint Pierre and Miquelon) according to French law on PACS provides recognition and civil rights for all unmarried couples regardless of gender. Similarly, civil pacts are legalized in Greenland by Danish law. In the Caribbean and the Caribbean, homosexual couples are recognized according to the local territorial legislative framework in overseas territories Netherlands (Aruba, Netherlands Antilles including the Dutch part of the island of Saint Martin) and the UK.
In Mexico, only the states of Coahuila and the Federal District have legalized civil pacts between persons of the same sex. The Federal District has legalized marriage between same sex.
In fact, the American continent at the moment seems concerned by the issue of gay marriage in two countries of North America: Canada and the United States. Canada has evolved because of its functioning legal and constitutional towards full recognition of gay marriage and all rights and duties pertaining thereto. For their part, the U.S. sees a hardening of positions in favor of banning gay marriage because of intense lobbying, although attempts have taken place in some states, then overturned by judicial decision. Massachusetts allows marriage to same-sex couples, and its position has recently been reinforced in 2007. The marriage of same-sex couples is also licensed in Connecticut, Vermont, Iowa. Laws have been passed in Maine in 2009, and California before being canceled.
See also Yoko Ono