As a ballet (from the Italian ballett, the diminutive of ballo = dance), even classical dance, the music accompanied artistic stage dance. In particular, the concept also have the following meanings:
* A dance performance on a stage musical accompaniment, with the presentation mainly consist of dancers or part of a larger work (opera, operetta, musical).
* An art form / theater division at the next opera, drama and concert, see Dance Theatre.
* A stage work, in which the dance is central.
* Music, as accompaniment for dance stage was written.
* A dancer at the Theater Ensemble (corps de ballet).
In classical ballet, with the means of music, dance, gestures, facial expressions, costumes and stage picture tells a story. We support the individual elements of each other. The author is a choreographer of the dance.
History of ballet
Emancipation from social dance
The ballet developed in the 15th And 16 Century emanating from the Italian and French royal houses listed operas, dramas and dance from social games. At that time there was still no independent art form. The stage dance was similar to the drama, long reserved for men.
The lead role in the development of dance came in the 16th Century of Italy to France. The oldest ballet, which received a score is Le Ballet Comique de la Reine for Catherine of Medici in the year 1581. It is in connection with a Hoffest at a betrothal, contains ancient mythological figures and transported political messages. It shows the combination of Italian and French dance elements in the service of a courtly power demonstration.
1661 Louis XIV founded the Académie Royale de danse in Paris. During this time the ballet learned a tremendous development and became increasingly by professional dancers. This separates the courtly dance of celebration. From 1681 must also publicly women dance.
The dance techniques, steps and positions of his time described Raoul Feuillet to 1700 in his book Chorégraphie. Mid-18th Century, the first act ballets. Before the dances were only by a common theme, but not by a continuous act. To play the various parts of Jean-Philippe Rameau's opera ballet Les Indes galantes (1735) all in exotic countries have on these characteristics, but no substantive connection.
The act ballet
1760 Jean Georges Noverre published his letters on the dance and ballet, which many of his contemporaries influenced. He believed that a drama with the means of dance could create. Because the drama is the highest yet poetic genre was depreciated substantially this dance. His ideas he sat in the ballet to Medea and Jason, 1763, the Ballet de l'Opéra de Paris premiere. Parallel to the court, there were about ballet in Paris Faire, the popular pantomime theatre, which had also acts and the "high" dance-influenced, as the Hofkultur before the French Revolution was increasingly criticized.
The reform ballet La Fille Mal Gardée (1789) by Jean Dauberval is until today the oldest surviving piece in the repertoire. It waived classical figures such as satyrs and other mythological beings and brought a simple interpersonal conflict on the stage.
In the revolutionary period Auguste Vestris contributed to the ballet, which always have been incorporated into operas, a self-importance. After 1800 included the emerging class of the Grand opéra one extended ballet. In this framework developed innovative dance techniques and stage equipment.
The "classic" Time
The time of the romantic ballet began with August Bournonvilles choreography La Sylphide (1832). During this time the ballet underwent a series of dramatic changes, both in terms of its theme as well as the dance itself was concerned. Fairytale substances replace the ancient subjects that are still at Pierre Gardel played an important role. The top dancing was invented, and the costumes were changed so that the foot and leg work for the audience visible. The first champion of the top dance is Maria Taglioni. A central role in the then stylistic changes had also Jules Perrot and served for Carlotta Grisi the ballet Giselle (1841) created. Prima ballerina was similar to the Prima Donna in the opera to star in the cultural world. Taglioni, Grisi or Fanny Elssler were the celebrities of the time.
Expressive dance and other innovations
Educators like François Delsarte and later Ruth St. Denis had already in the era of classical ballet, its content and its highly specialized technology in question. The expressive dance since about 1900, as Isadora Duncan about him on their worldwide tours presented numerous ballet conventions in question. It developed new forms of representation, for example, in the choreography of Rudolf von Laban.
The vanguards in 1900 brought an approximation of ballet to the other arts and the popular stage dance or pantomime. Visual artists like Sophie Taeuber-Arp tried as a stage dancer and presented the classical dance craft in question. Emil Jaques-Dalcroze joined the professional stage dance with the folk dance and gymnastics.
From the expression related to the dance or modern dance, which is widespread in the United States, many aspirations emerged, the ballet to renew or overcome. It combines them under the term Modern Dance Theatre. As founder Mary Wigman apply some or Martha Graham. By Kurt Jooss and his pupil Pina Bausch is an experimental direction of dance theatre, which is strictly against ballet traditions.
Renaissance of classical ballet
At the beginning of the 20th Century in Western Europe and North America, a revival of the ballet, among other things, triggered by the creation of the Ballets Russes by the impresario Sergei Djagilew 1909. The troops came from St. Petersburg, celebrated their successes in Paris and had a great impact on American dance. The ballet of the 20th Century was mainly influenced by artists, after the founding of the Soviet Union went into western exile. These include Michel Fokine, Vaslav Nijinsky and George Balanchine.
The classical ballet was in the eastern states in a very traditional forms. The dancer and teacher Agrippina Yakovlevna Waganowa designed a universal description of its technology. By renewing attempts in the West on the other hand, it got into trouble. Since the 1930s were therefore aspirations, the classical ballet traditions, which, under the name of neoclassicism together. As is the founder George Balanchine, in London represented Frederick Ashton this direction, in the USA, for example, Bronislava Nijinska. A younger generation of neo-classicism represented approximately John Cranko, with its large Handlungsballetten.