The Qing Dynasty (manchu daicing gurun; chin清朝, qīng cháo, W.-G. ch'ing ch'ao) is the second foreign rule in China, from the Manchu, hence Manchu dynasty, in 1616 under Nurhaci was founded. At that time it was Jin (was Houjin 'to the difference of Jin (1115-1234)). 1637 Qing Dynasty, (Verbatim superiority to characters Ming) by the Ming dynasty replaced. This dynasty is the Yuan the second Fremdherrschaftdynastie China, and only ended 1911 with the establishment of the Republic of China.
The founding of the Qing dynasty based on the rise of the Manchu. These were the former Jurchen from Manchuria, in the 17th Century changed its name. Under Nurhaci (1559-1626) and his son achtem Huang Taiji (sometimes also Abahai, 1592-1643) gained a large increase in power. Their military power they were based initially on the manchu influenced Eight banner, later supplemented by the more Han Chinese from existing Army of the Open Standard. The first Imperial Palace in Shenyang, where the tomb is located Nurhacis.
A highlight is the connection of the Chahar-Mongolians in a war against Ligdan Khan to 1632-1635, with the surrender of the imperial seal of Abahai ended. 1641 the Manchu undertook a major incursion into Ming China, the 88 cities they conquered, and six others over to the Liaodong Peninsula vordrangen. 1644 ended in the Ming Dynasty, two Mandschuprinzen and the former Ming-General Wu Sangui pursued the rebel leader Li Zicheng to Hunan, where he was in October 1645 of peasants was slain.
Qing China to the Opium War
The government of the Qing emperor Fulin (Shunzhi, 1643-1661, the ninth son Abahais) was approved by the two Prince Regent Dorgon and Dsirgalang. As early as 1645 they changed the Chinese Clothing (Hanfu) costume and hair and forced the Chinese threat of the death penalty Plait of the steppe peoples. Otherwise (as the Yuan-time), marriages between Chinese and Manchu. The capital Beijing was divided into two, one part for Manchu city in the north, one for the Chinese in the south. The Manchuria was locked Han Chinese.
Nevertheless, it should be noted that the ban on intermarriage, especially in the Manchu elite disregarded. Even the Qing emperors were Han Chinese women as imperial addition to women, so that Emperor Kangxi already a mother had to take. Also, the division of Beijing was highly permeable, because the interior (ie northern) City exactly taken the eight banners reserved. Most people were banners but no Chinese and Manchu. By 1700 lived in the northern city of Beijing is already more than 70% Han Chinese and the Manchu formed a distinct minority, if you marry-in by the Han Chinese is still of real Manchu speak.
With the death Dorgons, a traditional Manchu, in the year 1651 obtained the Chinese literati and officials a greater influence on the emperor. This was expressed in the fact that we now court the alliance relations with the Mongolian princes (especially the Khalkha) in tribute umdeutete relations. The entire palace servants was again asked by the Chinese and Han Chinese official to Hofsprache charged with Manchu increasingly squeezed. As time lapsed Emperor Fulin a religious madness and died with 23 years on the smallpox.
Emperor Kangxi and Emperor Qianlong
It was followed by his third son Kangxi (1661-1722), one of the most famous ruler of China. He organized the kingdom with the dispossession of the three new Feudalfürsten 1674-1681, ended 1683 to the resistance (Koxinga 1624-1662) on the coast and in Taiwan, fought to protect the Khalkha Mongol-1690-1696, 1715-1724, and then again against the Oirats, where he moved to the death of King Lhabzangs also protektierte Tibet 1720.
Emperor Kangxi took to the Jesuits not only lessons in warfare, but also in astronomy, mathematics and anatomy. He is a scholar. Shortly after his death, told the European missionaries after Macao, as they are members of banned political looked secret, Christianity was banned.
On the other hand, you have the old 1646 Chinese audit system for government officials and return to the old band management layer of the Ming period itself. After the pacification of the south were costly inspection trips to the cities on the Yangtze, the center of Chinese intelligence (1684-1765). The Manchu were only enlightened despots, but the contrast between them and the Chinese declined and flammte only in the late 19th Century again.
Until 1685 seized the Manchu (preferably in the north) land where they prisoners of war and dispossessed peasants had to work like slaves. Kangxi gradually understood the need for change, which then was radical. The Qing dynasty was then the mildest agricultural taxation throughout Chinese history (1711). You use advanced techniques and new arable crops (American potato, peanut, corn, fruits and vegetables) reckon that the Chinese Farmer its European counterpart to secure prosperity in nachstand nothing.
The techniques of pre-age (that is, before Watts steam engine) were the Qing period completely exhausted. Food production, textile industry, Teeernte, porcelain manufacture, paper and sugar production reached records.
It is estimated that from 400 million silver dollars from the American colonies (1571-1821), the Europeans half for the purchase of Chinese and other East Asian goods have spent, especially for luxury items such as porcelain and tea. This problem led to the First Opium War, because the Chinese government passed on silver payment. The Chinese Culture spotlighted in the 18th Century in a playful form to Europe (Chinoiserie).
Another problem was the desire for the establishment of a moral order in which the Manchu rule is not in question. To this end, we promoted the Confucianism in unprecedented ways. Against 1730 also had an impact on the qualification system for officials from each candidate had to justify Mandschuherrschaft detail. Perishables novels were 1687 on an index set, and they looked 1774-1789 for the purpose of censorship and systematic destruction after headlines, the barbarians even the suggestion of criticism.
Emperor Kangxi is known not only as a scholar, but also as a promoter of arts and sciences. He settled in Beijing and Jehol magnificent residences build and develop comprehensive scientific works (among others is a giant encyclopedia, dictionary). His son and successor, Yong Zheng (Nung Descheng, 1723-1735) and Qianlong (Hung-li, 1735-1796 reign, † 1799) did it. Both were scholars and supporters of literature, poems Qianlong left 30000.