The accordion is a musical instrument, and more particularly a wind instrument, the family of reed instruments free. Il est composé d'un soufflet permettant le déplacement de l'air dans une turbine à anche dite "libre" et de touches ouvrant des clapets, ce qui a pour effet de laisser passer l'air, donc de faire vibrer une anche aussi " free, "but metal that produces the sound itself.
The accordion is used both in folk music and in popular music, jazz, reggae, contemporary music, and even sometimes in classical music.
The sheng, or mouth organ, which emerged in 2700 BC, is considered the oldest ancestor of the accordion: it is the first free reed instrument.
On May 6, 1829, the Armenian Vienna, Cyrill Demian filed the patent for the accordion with his sons Carl and Guido.
That same year, on June 19, in London, Charles Wheatstone also filed a patent for a concertina.
In 1863, Paolo Soprani founded the first industry accordion at Castelfidardo which is considered the birthplace of the accordion world. The accordion can achieve the pace as well as the melody and harmony. It is therefore equivalent to an orchestra, which has earned him such prominence in the popular french balls. Yet purists dislike this instrument to any agreements made and the sound désaccordée hence, from the thirties, the invention of low chromatic (keyboard melody in left hand) and a registration varied sounds more and more careful. After the war, the accordion begins to falter despite writers like Jacques Brel who use it in their songs. If the instrument is considered to be corny, it is due in part to the maestros of the ball-musette. The accordion, around the 1980's, took the hair of the beast. Several factors allow this comeback. First, the attractiveness of traditional music and folk who use the accordion (Breton music, Slav, cajun music ...), then the use by singers like french Renaud who call for every day; l 'emergence accordionists major shunning of musette as Marc Perrone or Richard Galliano, and, finally, its use by groups of the alternative scene like Mano Negra and Les Négresses Vertes. It would also be restricted to ignore the emergence of the accordion in the contemporary avant-garde including from the 1980's, thanks to the prodigious progress of the instrument and the development of the state ' spirit of the World said "classical". We will not fail to mention Pascal Contet, and concert accordionist french international actively contributes to develop the contemporary music with composers like David Venitucci, Bernard Cavana, Vinko Globokar, Jacques Rebotier, Jean-Pierre Drouet, Bruno Giner, Jean Francaix, etc.
Claude Talks develops accordion in the field of improvised music and in connection with dancing or contemporary jazz (since the 1970s).
Today, the accordion is widely used by both of Variety Artists (Patrick Bruel, Bénabar ...) by groups that "alternative" (Les Ogres de Barback, Les Têtes Raides, Taizeurs noise, Les Hurlements of Leo Street ketanou, Java) and jazz musicians such as Richard Galliano or Marcel Loeffler, Rene Sopa, David Venitucci, Daniel Mille. In 2005, Serge Lama has toured with a single musician, accordionist Sergio Tomassi.
The musician and dismisses brings two main parts, by pressing the keys of the instrument. The air bellows rises in the machinery, and operates reeds (two per note). These reeds are granted by the image.
As shown in the illustration, the reed to rest has a curvature, native, who the door "to the wind" with the aim of facilitating the attack: for this reason a flap of skin prohibits the movement of the air in the opposite direction. In the accordion and instruments related slides are available as "push-pull", one on each side of the plate, and combined, each at a valve (valve) leather or plastic. This mounting "push-pull" can play a single note is the bellows, indiscriminately, fired or pushed.
The vibration is caused by a phenomenon known treatments, it is not sinusoidal and has many harmonics responsible for a typical family of stamps. The harmonics are used to facilitate the agreement of the low frequencies (<100> 5 Khz approximately) have a length of less than about 10 millimeters.
Due to the very short wavelength sounds most acute products (on the order of several cm) there are often phenomena waves due to "obstacles" to their spread ( "cases" of spring which exigûes supports plates, valves, ...) which may weaken or even completely neutralize, the sound! Solutions empirical bill to eliminate this phenomenon.
The agreement is by playing on the stiffness and mass parameters: frequency is increased by decreasing the mass removal of material (filing thick) from the free end (or his office reported). It decreases the frequency decreasing thickness (stiffness) of the blade (abduction by scratching: scraper) near its fixed, flexible ( "clear").
-- One factor accordion recognized Thierry Bénétoux included writing two books. -- An earlier book by Thierry Bénétoux, Understanding and répararer your accordion, spelled out the basic principles of mechanical movements of the instrument. "One question remained, he said: Why the accordion emet it sounds different depending on the model?" This reflection on the diversity sound was born this book The accordion sound and diverse, ranging from the genesis of his at various functional elements of the fundamental institution of the instrument. -- If it is about repairers, this book will also interest the teachers and pupils. An essential DVD accompany and complement the work of Thierry Bénétoux it meets any questions about the different types of agreements and registration of the instrument.
Another application of the reed free:
A vibrating reed large size and frequency infrasonique, designed to produce an amplitude vibrato, has been used in an accordion concert Cavagnolo: this reed is placed in a wall separating (equivalent to a "plate") prepared between bellows and the "body of the song." This system generates vibrato seems to be remaining unimplemented due, no doubt, frequency invariable, its effect too systematic (an agreement, or severe acute vibrates "block") and its limitation of airflow ( inconsistent with the natural expressiveness of the instrument), despite the presence of a means of neutralization (very large soupapape shuntant device).