Franz Schubert


Franz Schubert
Franz Peter Schubert, Austrian composer, born January 31, 1797 in Vienna, who died on November 19, 1828 in Vienna. Although death at thirty-one years, Schubert is one of the great composers of the nineteenth century, and the undisputed master of lied.

Franz Peter Schubert was born in Lichtenthal, near Vienna, on January 31, 1797. It is the 12th in a family of fourteen children. His father Franz Theodor, a teacher, gives him his first lessons viola, while his brother Ignaz teaching him piano. From 1808 to 1813, he was a singer in the choir of the Chapel of imperial Vienna and studied at Konvikt (training school singers in the chapel of the court). He became a student of Antonio Salieri, director of music at the Court.

During this training period, he began to compose, despite the reluctance of his father, who even banned him from going home, while his mother is dying (1811-1813). Schubert wrote first for the piano (as of 1810), then no less than eight string quartets, a few openings and lieder. In 1812, he became a pupil of Antonio Salieri, which he believes will keep in throughout his life. In 1813, heavily influenced by Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and especially by Ludwig van Beethoven, he composed his first symphony. Two years later, Schubert then having seventeen years, has his first opera, his first Mass, and his first masterpiece in the field of lied: Marguerite at the impeller (Gretchen am Spinnrade) on October 19, 1814.

A few years later, in 1818, Zséliz in Hungary, he became the tutor children of the Count Esterhazy. There will return in 1824.

Except for a few trips to Austria, especially in Graz, Linz, Steyer, Gmünden and Salzburg, Schubert spend most of his short life in Vienna, and have abandoned the profession of teacher and support of his father, he will live most time with friends and devoting his entire life to the music, composition, and meetings musical: "schubertiades", these gatherings where his songs are aware of their early success.

In 1822-23, Schubert is suffering from syphilis, and his health continues to deteriorate then. He pulls his misfortune music increasingly deep and moving, closest to the suffering and death that lurks (The girl and death, Winter Journey). Franz Schubert dies of typhus in fact, Nov. 19, 1828 (when he was 31 years old), a year and a half after Ludwig van Beethoven for which he experienced, during his lifetime, respect and admiration without limit.

His work
From bohemian nature, Franz Schubert has throughout his short life that little money, but it did little cares, especially when his friends are always there to help him, as he is there to entertain. Even if it dies of typhus at the age of thirty-one years, he has had time to compose more than a thousand works, including some six hundred songs, pieces among the most critical of her repertoire, consisting of texts of the greatest poets of the German language (Klopstock, Goethe, Schiller, Rückert, Heine), his friends (Mayrhofer, Körner, Spaun, Schober, Senn, Collin, Schwind) or remained known poets through his lieder ( Müller). Baritone Johann Michael Vogl, very famous at the time, became a friend and admirer of Schubert, has contributed greatly to publicize the lieder, as Baron Carl von Schönstein and singer Anna Milder. Some will even lieder a resounding success. Schubert wrote to all musical genres, except for the concerto. Influenced by Haydn and Mozart, his art is very different. It was not recognized in his lifetime, many works have been performed for the first time that long after his death.

For orchestra
The numbering of Schubert symphonies, after the first six, has been a problem in the past, after the recent discovery of scores of many projects symphonies, abandoned by the composer in various states of progress. La Grande Symphonie D.944 received and the number 7 after its discovery in 1838 by Robert Schumann. The discovery of Unfinished in the years 1860 awarded him the same number 7, Great becoming the number 8. Finally D.729 the symphony, complete with four movements but not orchestrated, has been estimated as a veritable symphony and sometimes the number 7, giving the No. 8 Unfinished and Great number 9. The numbering is now widely accepted and considered as final, even if the use of the catalogue numbers of D Otto Erich Deutsch, is often necessary to avoid confusion.

* 1st Symphony in D Major D. 82 (half-hour)
* 2nd Symphony in B flat major D. 125 (about half an hour)
* 3rd symphony in D major, D.200 (about half an hour)
* 4th Symphony in C minor, known as the "Tragic" D.417 (about half an hour)
* 5th Symphony in B flat major, D.485 (about half an hour)
* 6th Symphony in C major, D.589 (about half an hour)
* 7th Symphony in E major D.729 (1821) (approximately one-half hour)
* 8th Symphony in B minor, known as "Unfinished" D.759 (1822) (approximately one-half hour)
* 9th Symphony in C major, known as "The Great" D.944 (about an hour)
* 10th symphony in D major D.936a (a little over half an hour)

or piano

* Three Klavierstücke, D.946
* Eight impromptu D.899 & D.935
* Six musical D.780
* "Wanderer Fantasy", D.760, op.15
* 21 Piano Sonatas, including:
No. 1 in E major Sonata D.157
O 2nd Sonata in C major D.279
O 3rd Sonata in E major D.459
O 4th Sonata in A minor D.537
O 5th Sonata in E flat major D.557
O 6th Sonata in E major D.566
O 7th sonata in E flat major D.568
O 8th Sonata in F-sharp minor, D.571 (excerpt from the first movement)
O 9th sonata in B flat major D.575
O 11st Sonata in F minor, D.625
O 13rd Sonata in A Major D.664
O 14th Sonata in A minor D.784
O 15th sonata in C major D.840 "Reliquie" (unfinished)
O 16th Sonata in A minor D.845
O 17th sonata in D Major D.850
O 18th Sonata in G major (Fantasy) D.894
O 19th sonata in C minor D.958
O 20th Sonata in A Major D.959
O 21st sonata in B flat major D.960 (about 40 minutes)

# Allegro in A minor, D.947: Lebensstürme
# 4 hand Fantaisie in F minor, D.940
# Ungarische Melodie, 2 hands piano, D.817
# Fun at the Hungarian 4 hands D.818 (repeats the theme of D.817)
# Fun at the French for 4 hands D.823
Variations # 4 hand in A flat major D.813


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