Yoga: Republic of India
Yoga (Sanskrit योग Yoga) is a discipline issue of Vedic India aimed, through meditation, moral asceticism and physical exercises, to achieve the unification of the human aspects in his physical, mental and spiritual.
Yoga was practiced already to the third millennium BC. Around the fourth century BC. AD, in drafting the Yoga Sutra, Patanjali systematizes the philosophy of yoga achieving a synthesis of all the theories on the practice inside.
"Yoga does not exclude the metaphysics of physically and mentally. It does not fundamentally separates this area of thought. His method includes any knowledge, the structure of the World apparent, the formation of thought, the role of energy that gives rise to one and the other, and, beyond that, the power and creative energy that the world is produced. By the method of reintegration, it allows you to perceive the nature of mental representations and conscience and to achieve union with subtle form of Being."
Yoga is one of six schools (ṣaḍdarśana) of the Vedic philosophy.
The term "yoga" comes from the Sanskrit योग. Its significance is much broader than the definition given union. Its Sanskrit root yuj means:
* Vehicle, equipment, means, method, convenience, contact,
* Union, Junction, zeal, caring, concentration of mind,
* Discipline, practice yoga, ecstasy or mystical union, philosophical system of yoga attributed to Patanjali, which deals with the inner world of man or microcosm.
Thus, yoga is both the method, a way, and purpose.
This word has the same Indo-European radical that can be found in the french yoke (Latin jugum) and the English yoke. It also presents the idea of a "union of the individual soul with the Universal Mind".
* Ascète: One, that, in a community, either individually exercised to prayer and moral perfection by conducting an austere life, made spiritual exercises, mortification and abstinence.
* Gymnosophiste: Ascète belonging to a Hindu sect whose members lived almost naked and engaged in the contemplation of the nature of things.
* Sadhou: sâdhu (Sanskrit साधु sādhu, "man of good, holy man") chose to live a life of holiness to accelerate the process of release (Moksha), and achieve at the end of this life.
For at least three thousand years before our era, the emancipation of yoga was developed through an unbroken chain of transmission teacher to student, enriched with each generation of the experimental knowledge of the teacher. Thus, over the centuries have developed the technique and philosophy of yoga.
Towards the seventeenth century BC. AD, the Aryans invaded the Punjab, they bring with them their religion codified in the Vedas, Hinduism root of which is linked yoga. They impose their language, Sanskrit, but seem indigenous traditions of northern India, including Yogic practices existing in the original Dravidians. For the rituals of the time, "Pronounced the formula is more to trigger a sort of magic voice, rather than stating a form of absolute truth". This cast is very attentive in the Mantra Yoga, and attention to gesture is reflected in the hand-sign of yoga.
Around the seventh century BC. AD, the Upanishads form the third and final group of scriptural revelation Vedic. The momentum metaphysical crossed by small circle of the liturgy and, in equivalency equivalents, amounts to the truth: the identity of the individual soul (atman) and the universal soul (brahman), a theme reflected in the philosophy of yoga.
Around the fourth century BC. AD The Yoga Sutras (YS) and the Bhagavad Gita are written, they will become the reference texts of yoga.
In the eighteenth century, French colonization leads to a cultural decline.
In the early twentieth century yoga again. In 1924, Sri Krishnamacharia founded a school of yoga that will model the hatha yoga as it is known in the West. Yoga has slowly developed absorb and permeating that surrounded her. Yoga is primarily a practical realization (sadhana) obtained by asceticism urging all forces of the body and mind, it is akin to Sâmkhya by all the theoretical contributions that draws.
The five major routes
"Yoga does not require that all individuals follow a single path. There are many ways and styles of yoga associated with various individual aspirations and the various aspects of our nature. Five major routes, which form the Raja Yoga can summarize these directions. It is also possible to follow the assemblies or separately:
1. Jnana Yoga: Yoga of Knowledge transcendent;
2. Bhakti yoga: Yoga of Devotion and worship;
3. Karma Yoga: Yoga Service and action disinterested;
4. Kriya Yoga: Yoga Technique of all techniques of yoga: Yoga, Kundalini yoga, tantra yoga, Yoga Nidra and others;
5. Raja Yoga: Integral Yoga, involving four lanes earlier."
Even within the same State (मार्ग, mārga), there may be different currents. A yogi recognized as a leadership and team teaching, may decide to found a school of yoga. This diversity is not a sign of weakness or of dissent, but rather a response to the extreme diversity of expectations.
Kriya Yoga - yoga techniques
"Science has its own Yogic technology consisting of various methods and techniques involving the body, breathing and the mind. Kriya refers to the action, the process or movement, in particular the deployment of internal prana and concentration. The purification and processing techniques from yoga prepare themselves to deep meditation."
For most Westerners, yoga is defined solely around this yoga technique, yet it is not the only existing yoga. Hatha yoga means union-strong, even violent (हठ haṭha). An explanation explains the symbolism as the happy reunion of opposites, which can be found also in the cartoon praṇava (प्रणव) the sacred syllable om ॐ (the moon, which hosts the solar point). Hatha yoga is a discipline of harmonization and development of mental faculties (concentration, serenity) and faculties assets (firmness, flexibility). Hatha Yoga has its letters of nobility to the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. It also refers to the Hatha Yoga Pradipika and the Gheranda Samhita which are original Tantric.
The Mantra Yoga
The mantra is an object or a meditation. The mantra is either a very condensed, or a series of syllables assemblies on the basis of their intrinsic magic efficiency alone, repeated many times following a certain pattern. The purpose of the practice may be a blessing material or spiritual. The Mantra Yoga can be done as part of a ritual minimal, or an elaborate liturgy, including prayers, visualizations, mudrās, and so on. The narrator is often accompanied by a mālā, sort of rosary with 108 grains.
This yoga is expressed through two religions: Tantric Buddhism (Tibet, Bhutan, Nepal and Japan) and Tantric Hinduism (mainly in northern India). For Hinduism, Tantra (तन्त्र) means rule method treaty. Tantra is an approach to energy at a level subtle. Several yogas draw their origin in the Tantra, we will cite three:
The Shivaïsme Kashmir
This yoga is the highest expression of Tantra, it is based on the triple authority, first of sacred scriptures, the Agamas, and the experience and learn from the master, finally own discernment of practicing . Unlike the classical Brahmanism, Shivaïsme Kashmir requires no special qualification caste, faith, but only to aspire to learn, according to his ability, to appropriate education. Only fervor and selflessness are required, any form of asceticism painful, no sense of defiance or life. Between the sixth and tenth centuries, Vasugupta, Abhinavagupta, Gaudapâda, Ksemaraja rédigérent major works Cacheméries.
The Kundalini Yoga
The Kundalini refers to the primary energy present in every human being and evolved into Sushumna, its main channel along the spine, through chakra to the top of the head. This technique allows movement and the combination of updrafts and downdrafts of the body moving through the main energy channels (nadis) left (ida) and right (pingala). Some schools Hatha yoga-draw large borrowings, including their energy representations of the body.
Jung continued, throughout his life, an analysis of the human psyche and tried among other things, a rapprochement between Eastern thought - Kundalini Yoga - and psychoanalytic theories.
The Yoga Nidra
- Yoga Nidra means Yogic sleep. It can be viewed as a variant of the condition of trance shamans. This ancient technique is described in the treaties of the Tantras and has been brought by the Yogis since time immemorial.
This yoga is based on relaxation, working in the vicinity of phase liminale sleep. This technique uses representations such as practised in the sophrologie. Induction by the teacher, and the sweetness relational attention to the body in the present moment akin to hypnosis Eriksonienne.
"The primary concern of Indian thought has always been the position of man in relation to the universe, and more specifically the duality of his condition: on the one hand the enslavement to physical and material, and" other violent aspiration to a breach of those conditions. These two fundamental aspects of human problem have guided all searches over the centuries, starting with an analysis of the conditions of enslavement, to go to the very sophisticated methods of deconditioning." The Yoga Sutras specify this journey: detachment, cessation of the activities of the mind, contentment.
The ultimate goal is the quest for harmony, a unit body and mind. It is part of the present moment, and it is potentially available to any human being. "At the heart of yoga there is an important message: every human being is naturally balanced, and because the whole Soi can be neither destroyed or damaged. That is our inherent nature, and yoga is the path to a greater awareness of this entity interior, Soi. When we follow the path of systematically yoga, it takes in our lives profound significance. Externally, it allows us to act according to our needs, our intentions and values that we hold most dear. Internally, it teaches us to strengthen our body, to relax and to balance our nervous system and find peace and focusing on an object. Ultimately, it is said that yoga leads to the realization of our true nature."
Yoga is a philosophy without exception, all beliefs, the same religious or humanistic, can find their account. However, yoga is not a religion. The offering yoga union, religious choices or are respected. The most important thing is the cessation of mental disturbance, it induces: respect for others, peace and non-violence.
Yoga and Vedic philosophies
Yoga is one of 6 views of the Vedic philosophy: darśana. They work in pairs: Nyâya and Vaishéshika, Sâmkhya and yoga, and Mîmâmsâ Vedanta. These darśana are deemed essential to get an overall picture of reality. It was the opposition of the six lanes of knowledge that would invoke something the Supreme and indivisible reality, which, in its entirety, remains beyond our attack and we can not consider as fragments, as we look at a statue from different angles before they can train us an overview.
In Sâmkhya, two-tier system and atheist, yoga borrows many theoretical elements including: purusha, and prakritti gunas.
"Whoever remains in the field of ignorance, is a victim of the five barriers that are ignorance, ego, attachment hardware as much as its own ideas, repulsion and fear of death." Man suffers because it constantly seeks the source of his happiness outside itself and this lawsuit is the price of a mental turmoil which leads to stress and / or pain of living. In this context, yoga offers a physical practice linked to specific knowledge of the workings and psychological resistance, leading to a union body and spirit which is proving to be a natural serenity, characterized by freedom (मोक्ष Moksha) domestic postage (his stage Final) any subservience to the conditioning (संस्कार saṃskāra).
The Yoga Sutras
To get an idea of the text, there are free and available translations. This suite of 195 aphorisms was codified in the fourth century BC. AD By Patanjali. This darśana deals with the inner world of man and the means to implement for liberation from the detritus of confusion (अविद्य Avidya) causing suffering. The Yoga Sutras codifies the Raja Yoga in four chapters:
* Chapter I, De unification: Samadhi pada.
After paying tribute to the perpetual chain of transmission master-disciple, this chapter immediately sets the goal of yoga which is not surprising. Indeed, rather than advocacy of positional practice, it is an end to the agitation of the mind which stimulates the pain and confusion of ego made for the Soi. Then he says obstacles and ways to overcome them: finally, it presents a model, and describes the various stages of samadhi.
* Chapter II, Du path: Sadana pada.
This chapter outlines the causes of suffering and proposes discrimination as a way to escape. To develop discrimination, simultaneous observance of the eight directions of Ashtanga Yoga is the foundation for the practice of yoga.
1 - yama: righteous attitudes towards others, like self-indulgence.
2 - Niyama: observances towards oneself,
3 - Asana: postural practice; Patanjali does not detail the postures,
4 - Pranayama: breath control; Patanjali not detail any Pranayama,
5 - Pratyahara: listening sensory inner angas These five form the basis of Hatha yoga.
* Chapter III, Credentials: Vibhuti pada.
Description of the last three angas:
6 - Dharana: concentration,
7 - Dhyana: meditation
8 - Samadhi: absorption, the status of the unit, there are several levels of Samadhi.
Then this chapter discusses access to power (siddhis), and warned that the pursuit of these powers can become a hindrance.
* Chapter IV, De emancipation: Kaivalaya Pada.
Presentation of Karma and duality, then the duality towards unity. It is a reprise of all the themes that have already been exposed to the posting which leads to ultimate freedom.