In its modern circus is a troupe of artists, traditionally itinerant, which comprises mostly acrobats, numbers dressage and taming of animals, clowns, magic tricks. More generally, the circus is now a popular performing arts organized around a circular stage which owes its name. Its characteristics have been many changes to the present day.
The circus Astley
Our design is inspired by a circus way or another ancient Roman games as well as bateleurs troubadours and the Middle Ages. The first performance of a modern circus dated January 9, 1768 and was presented by Philip Astley in London. A veteran returning from America, he decided to represent mostly horse shows égayés by bateleurs. The marriage of military equestrian world and the world stalls around the circle is established. This new form of entertainment, based primarily on exercises on horseback, was then introduced in France by the same Astley, and then picked up by Antonio Franconi and his descendants. Only in the nineteenth century when waves of colonization that were introduced in France and Germany the first wild animals.
Cirque classic to the former
In the nineteenth century, the circus equestrian grew in circuses stable built in different cities in France, in Paris and in the provinces.
The family Franconi successively founded, in Paris, three theatres circus under the name "Olympic" Cirque:
* 1st property located rue Saint-Honoré (1807-1816),
* 2nd property located rue du Faubourg du Temple (1817-1826), the ancient amphitheatre of Astley,
* 3rd property located boulevard du Temple (1827-1862).
In their first Olympic Circus, Franconi exhibited in the Napoleonic era, wild animals in circus show to the former consisting of numbers equestrian and acrobatics:
* Baba the elephant in 1807, author of scholars and stunning tours,
* Deer Coco in 1813, in a scene evoking the theme of hunting with hounds.
In the third Cirque Olympique, the creation in 1831 of the pantomime a big show "The Lions of Mysore" marked the advent of taming the circus. The tamer Henri Martin was hired, with its wild animals, by the brothers who ascended Franconi for him this pantomime in which the felines were presented tamer Marseille behind a lattice placed on the front of the stage.
In 1856, Theodore Rancy founded his first circus (itinerant tent) in Rouen, and then built the following drive: Geneva (1875), Lyon (1882), Le Havre (1887), Boulogne-sur-Mer (1888), Amiens (1889), Rouen (1893), and so on.
In the late nineteenth century, Paris experienced four circuses in sedentary activity:
* Cirque des Champs-Elysées (1841-1898), known as the Empress Circus Circus or Summer;
* Cirque Napoleon (1852) 1934;
* Cirque Fernando (1875-1972), which will become the Cirque Médrano in 1897, the theatre "clowns";
* New Circus (1886-1926), circus-pool built rue Saint-Honoré (with a track transformable in the pool for pantomimes nautical).
The last circus stable to open its doors in the French capital was the Cirque Métropole (1906-1930) known under the banner of Cirque de Paris, which showed tamers often featured.
The circus menagerie-succeeded in equestrian circus of the nineteenth century.
Founded in 1854 by an English family, Pinder, Cirque Britania crossed the Channel since 1868 and took the name of the circus-racecourse brothers Pinder. Convoys horse-drawn were drawn by horses.
The merger-circus menagerie was popularized by the English circus of Lord George Sanger between 1856 and 1870, when his collection of exotic animals was the largest among the travelling menageries in Britain.
In the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century, Barnum and his successors, the United States, gave new momentum to the circus.
* In 1871, Phineas Taylor Barnum, with his associates William Cameron Coup and Dan Castello, the first operating Barnum Circus included in a travelling by train and attended museum of curiosities, menagerie convoy and marquee.
* Ally with James Anthony Bailey, in 1881, he created the first marquee at 3 trails that took the name of Barnum & Bailey Circus in 1887. The circus giant will conduct an extensive tour throughout Europe from 1897 to 1902.
* The Ringling Brothers, in 1907, the rachetèrent Barnum & Bailey Circus to include them in theirs, Ringling Bros.. Circus, founded in 1884, and train in 1919, the largest tent in the world: "Ringling Bros.. And Barnum & Bailey Circus, The Greatest Show on Earth ".
Cirque Carl Hagenbeck, founded in Hamburg in 1887 under the name "International Circus and Caravan Cingalaise, has traveled throughout the world, with a large menagerie, complementing its representations by zoological exhibitions and Ethnological, and existed until in 1953.
The Wild West Show of Buffalo Bill, which was established in 1884, made a tour of Europe in 1889 and 1905. The spectacle of the American West long marked minds particularly in France where Sampion Bouglione father recovered a stock of posters of the real Wild West hero, in 1926 acquired a large tent used and gave him the name "Captain Stadium Buffalo Bill ".
Cirque Sarrasani, established in 1902 in Dresden in Saxony, impressed Germany and South America by the prestige of its director "Maharajah" Hans von Stosch-Sarrasani, Chevalier de l'Ordre Imperial Persian Lion and Sun , the organization of its facilities (caravans, stables, menageries, tents and marquees) and the pomp of his performances taking place, from 1918, in one of the most beautiful capitals of the structure and round on a track of 17.5 metres in diameter.
In 1919, the brothers (Friedrich, Rudolf, and Karl Eugen) Knie family transformed the arena open in a circus under the big top under the "Singing Swiss National Circus Knie Brothers."
The circus has been transformed into exotic spectacle thanks to the presence of wild animals and in fact his fame (or advertising) by their exposure at a parade or a menagerie:
* In 1932, Ringling Bros. circus American. And Barnum & Bailey had a menagerie rich in wildlife 1000;
* In 1934, the German Krone circus, "the greatest circus in Europe" created in 1905 by Carl Krone, in her menagerie included more than 800 animals.
Between the two world wars, circuses french annexed to their establishment a menagerie hitherto show fairground. The reverse also occurred, menageries foraines adding a circus show their schools. It was also at this time that circuses french motorisèrent their road convoys. So dominant in France: the Zoo-Circus brothers Court (1921-1932), the first large passenger french circus, Cirque of 4 brothers Amar (1924), that of 4 brothers Bouglione (1933), Pinder (1928-1972 , Charles Spiessert direction).
The circus-menagerie is characterized by the presence of tamers or animal trainers within the siblings or relatives of Circassians.
* Alfred (brother Jules) Short forma Zoo in 1923-his first Circus Joint fauves entitled "Peace in the Jungle".
* The Amar brothers were all tamers: eldest Amar presented tigers and elephants, Ali polar bears, lions and Sheriff Mustapha, after an accident with a tiger, assumed the leadership of the circus.
* The specialized Bouglione seniors: Sampion as trainer of horses, as Joseph elephant trainer, Firmin as tamer of wild beasts and Alexander as a director of the circus.
* Roger Spessardy (brother of Charles Spiessert) was tamer of wild beasts among Pinder and led the menagerie.
After World War II, circuses french joined on the radio and television, such as the Radio and Grand Circus Circus France (period 1949-1962) and the Grüss Pinder ORTF (1961-1969) with the label Track stars. For corser their programs, they mixed the circus show with foreign elements to the track featured presenters, benefits artists from music hall, exhibition of champions sports and games radio.
Around 1970's, french circuses were the most important Amar (1973-1982 direction Firmin Bouglione junior), Bouglione (Bouglione junior: Sampion, Emilien and Joseph), Pinder (1972-1983, Jean Richard direction), Rancy ( 1962-1978, creating Rancy Sabine), Jean Richard (1968-1983), Zavatta (1978-1991, Zavatta creation Achilles) and the circus at the old Grüss the family (1974, direction Alexis Grüss junior).
The Italian American Circus circus began, with its big top at 3 trails, a tour of France, at the end of 1979, which was followed by others until 1986. In 1981, Cirque Bouglione takes its name from American Parade, followed by American Circus to thwart its competitor.
The bankruptcy ringing (Amar in 1973, John Richard in 1978 and 1983, Rancy in 1978 and 1987, Achille Zavatta in 1991) and the case American Circus in 1979 will mark the "end" to traditional circus France and allow its renewal.
A foreign countries such as France, few circuses sedentary (fixed or circuses circuses winter) subsisted, but passenger facilities were very many:
* Germany: Busch-Roland, Hagenbeck, Althoff, Krone, Sarrasani, Barum;
* Spain: Feijóo-Castilla;
* Britain: Bertram Mills, Chipperfield, Billy Smart;
* Italy: Togni, Orfei, Casartelli;
* Switzerland: Knie;
* United States: Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey who abandoned performances in a marquee in 1956, Clyde Beatty - Cole Bros., Carson & Barnes, Vargas.
In the 1970's, the public circus of steam and the movement of new circus made its appearance in France. It is worn by the democratization of the circus with the opening of schools circus approved by the French Federation of circus schools. The circus opens and brings into question. This kind of spectacle strong play (like Archaos, Cirque Plume, Zingaro, the Company Poor spirits, etc.). Questioned the conventions of the circus, said now traditional circus, which is still very much alive, assimilating some of the new innovations circus. Attracting Arlette Gruss, for example, adopt costumes and music similar to those of Quebec's Cirque du Soleil while continuing to provide numbers of traditional disciplines, with particular emphasis on training exercises. However, the presence of animals in circuses, banned in several countries in the world, seems increasingly contested in France.
List of various specialties represented
# Mr Loyal
* Korean Bascule
* Russian Barre
# Mime, ventriloquism
* A fire
* Avaleur sabre
* Sticking with the Devil
* Balls, rings, clubs
* Stick fire, the Indian batting, bolas, strings, meteor
* Hoops (Hulahoop)
* Run knife
# Air Numbers
* Male Barrel
O Fixed Keystone
O Keystone wheel
# Dressage and taming of animals: ostrich, camel, horse, dog, camel, elephant, giraffe, Llama, lion, sea lion, bear, leopard, snake, monkey, tiger, ...
Festivals and Events
* L'Atelier du Plateau made his circus (France): programming circus Annual Workshop Plateau in Paris in October, since 2002.
* Balls adept at Belleville (France): juggling convention and arts festival for the annual street, the last weekend of May at the Parc de Belleville in Paris since 1997.
* Circa, circus festival Auch (France): annually since 1988.
* Festival of contemporary circus La Seyne-sur-Mer (France): Annual end of January since 2000.
* International Circus Festival of Massy (France) [access the site]: yearly since 1993.
* International Circus Festival of Monte Carlo (Monaco) [access the site]: annually since 1974.
* International Circus Festival of Tours (France) [access the site] since 2007.
* World Festival of circus tomorrow (France) [access the site]: annual, in early February in Paris since 1977, founded by Isabelle and Dominique Mauclair.
* Midi-Pyrenees made his circus in Avignon (France): annual, in July as part of the Avignon festival off, since 2006, organized by Circuits (conventionnée scene of Auch), Grainerie (manufactures of circus arts Balma) and the Lido (center of the circus arts Toulouse).
* Parade (s), arts festival in the rue de Nanterre (France): annually in May since 1990.
* Route circus festival of contemporary circus Nexon (France): Annual summer since 1999.
* Solstice, a festival of the circus arts Antony (France): Annual in June since 2001.
* Under the chapitô, circus festival in Bagnolet (France), including the Festival clowns, burlesques and eccentric: annually in April since 2005.
* Village circus (France): annual, in September in Paris since 2006, organized by the cooperative From street and circus (2R2C).
* Salon Mondial du Cirque, Paris: 1st edition from 11 to 13 April 2008, Porte de Versailles.