The violin is a musical instrument String. A violin is made up of 71 elements in wood (spruce, maple, boxwood, ebony, etc.). Glue or assembled to each other. It has four strings granted in fifths, which is rubbed with a bow (except for pizzicato). The family also includes the violin viola, cello and double bass, the violin is the smallest of these instruments and offering the range most acute.
Constitution of the instrument
A violin is composed of three groups: the strings, the resonator, and the handle. Its length is variable. A Violin maximum size is called a wide, and is designed for violinists who have reached their adult size, but usually measured 59 cm long, the button at the tip of the head. There is a level of non-proportional length of violins: 7/8ème (less common, but existant.sa size is between that of the whole and the 3 / 4) three-quarters are 56 cm; the halves, 53 cm, followed by quarters (48 cm), eighth (44 cm), and the sixteenth (37 cm), [ref. Required] the latter being intended for very young violinists (usually 3 years).
The strings, four in number, are part of the violin setting vibration and produce sound.
For a very long period, the strings were pure gut and only the rope ground was surrounded by a wire silver or copper (it was called "spun on hose"). The hose is used no cat as is a very popular idea. This error is for example included in the definition of humorous violin 1911: "Violin: instrument designed to tickle the ears of man by the friction of the tail of a horse on the casings of a cat. "
The error could stem from too literal understanding of catgut, rope hose used in surgery. In reality, there used to manufacture the casing strings in the middle tunic of the small intestine of the sheep, whose fibres are resistant. Several sons obtained from splitting in the length are twisted together, and the median tunic is so fine that the intestines hail from four to five sheep are needed to about twenty-five of the strings.
A rope hose must be in full length rod of the same diameter, elastic, a regular flexibility and transparent color. A thickening or a density of the irregular structure of the material prevents an agreement quite right. The correctness of a rope only evaluates the legality of diameter unless it is consistent density, the latter condition was fulfilled as for the string of good quality.
In the early twentieth century, half of the rope was replaced with a steel wire, as it broke too often. Later, it was also fitted with an aluminum coil ropes and the result, the core of which is hose or plastic. The latter option is now privileged (except for early music): it is less sensitive to disagreement, it is not as demanding in the manufacture, and can therefore be carried out industrial. It also uses a lot of low strings spun core of steel, which produce a clear sound but dry. To give more easily steel-string, much more sensitive to the tension, were developed mechanisms screw special set at the tailpiece, stretchers, small knobs fines.
If all the strings had the same diameter, the tension is expected to decrease for the low strings. The pressure distribution on the table would be irregular and the sound of low strings unsatisfactory due to weak resonance. That's why the strings have different diameters, but an almost equal tension. It tends more strongly from mid rope, which is based on the right foot of the bridge to give it a sound volume and brightness increased. A Stradivarius violin type weighs between 355 g and 365 g inclusive; the table, 55 g, and bottom, 90 g, must resist through joint bars, the tension of the strings equal to 27 kg. As in the case of violin pressure transmitted to the table is 0140 kg per kg of tension, there is a pressure on the table worth 3.78 kg.
The sounding board
The function of the resonator is to amplify the sound caused by the vibration of the strings.
The upper surface of a violin is called body. Made (mostly) two pieces of spruce stuck in sideways, it is curved and pierced holes in two forms of ƒ, gills, which are designed to release the vibrations from the resonator . The lower surface, commonly called the "back" or the "bottom", consists of a piece maple, or two pieces stuck together in the direction of length. It is also often domed but to a lesser extent. On the banks of the two sides, there are two black line encompasses a line of the same colour as the table (white before coating): nets.
The sides maple, called splice, meet the soundboard and the bottom to form a box that form the resonator. At the easel, the sides of the violin are shaped C (intaglio inward): these are the notches, whose purpose is to allow the passage of the bow. The small spikes in their extremities are called tabs.
Within the violin, there is the soul and the harmony bar, which play an essential role in the transmission of vibrations from the strings and resistance in the face of pressure from the strings.
It's in the echo chamber that we find the label indicating the name of the manufacturer luthier and year of manufacture.
It lets you get the right string, adjusting the tension of these and authorizes the game violinist.
It is a piece of maple completed by the head ornament decorated with a spiral-shaped, the scroll. In the construction baroque and classical, until about 1800, the neck of the violin was adjusted against the dowel and nailed him. Now it is landlocked and pasted in the upper dowel. On the head, ankles laterally are set to control the tension of the strings. Easily recognizable by its black color, a long plate ebony, the key, not hoop, is pasted on the sleeve. The key is finished at the head of the violin by the capo, ebony small room which acts as a guide for the strings.
The bridge is a wood carved sycamore maple placed perpendicular to the body between the gills and provides two functions. He presses the strings in a curved configuration (the strings are not in the same plane), allowing that each could be wiped separately. He also influenced the sound of the violin, because it communicates the strings to the soundboard. This piece is not glued to the instrument, like the soul, and is held in place only by the pressure of the strings.
The four strings may be granted in the head by the ankles; at the base of the violin, tensioners allow a more purpose. These stretchers are committed to the tailpiece, ebony black piece attached to the body by a button.
The strings, the most serious to the most acute, are awarded to fifth in the following manner: soil, re, mi and. Listen to empty strings; listen to comment on a violin désaccordé grants. However, it can be given the violin otherwise to get an effect, the scordatura.
Once we identified respectively under the names chanterelle and drone strings and mid ground. They were reflected in the translation of the method of Leopold Mozart, for example. Currently, there are strings I to IV, the first being that of rope mi.
Yehudi Menuhin said ropes:
"The rope of soil, the most serious, is a sound rich, deep, and inspires a sense of nobility. The rope re stands out as something more passionate, more lively. The rope of the opens and flourishes in space. The brightest and most extroverted of the four is the mid rope."
Origin and birth of the violin
It is estimated that the violin was born in the years 1520, within a radius of 80 km around Milan. There is uncertainty between the cities of Brescia and Cremona. The first violin maker who produced a violin could be Giovan Giacobo dalla Corna or Zanetto Montichiaro; there is no evidence whatsoever Andrea Amati, and (contrary to what the literature of the nineteenth century) it does not surely by Gasparo da Salo, who was born in 1540. It seems that the violin has borrowed features three instruments: the rebec, in use since the tenth century (itself derived from the rebab Arab music), the vielle and the lira da braccio.
The first mention of the violin which has trace is a note of December 1523, in a register of the Treasury General Savoie (language is then french) for the payment of benefits' trumpets and vyollons Vercelli. "The first appearance of violin in art is due to Gaudenzio Ferrari (circa 1480 to 1546), author of The Madonna degli aranci (The Madonna and orange), dating from 1529-30, in the Church of St. Christophe Vercelli. Finally, one of the first explicit descriptions of the instrument and its agreement in fifths contained in the Epitome musical tones, sounds and accordz Leg of Philibert de Fer, published in Lyon in 1556. Iron Leg Philibert wrote, "The violin is quite contrary to the viola ... We call c'elles which violates the nice men, and other gents marchantz of vertuz spend their time ... The other violin and called it celuy which have danceries in use."