Asterix is a series of French comic strip, created in 1959 by Rene Goscinny (scenario) and Albert Uderzo (drawings and then, from 1980, screenplay and drawings). This is certainly the French comic book which has the most successful, with 320 million albums sold worldwide in 45 years.
"We are in 50 BC and all Gaul is occupied by the Romans ... Any? No! For a village populated by indomitable Gauls still resistant to the invader. And life is not easy for the garrisons of Roman legionnaires camps of Babaorum, Aquarium, and Laudanum Petibonum ... ". The Gallic village Armorique resisting the invaders thanks to the magic potion prepared by the druid Panoramix, which provides momentarily superhuman strength to whoever drinks.
The cartoon focuses primarily on one of the inhabitants of this village: Asterix, courageous warrior, which will serve not only as the magic potion, but also his intelligence to foil the plans of Julius Caesar and defend his village of the invader , whether Roman or goth Norman. The first album apart, Asterix is accompanied in all his adventures (which often led him beyond the borders of Gaul) by his friend Obelix, the only Gauls for whom the effects of the magic potion be permanent since that he fell in as a child. Since the fifth album, the two heroes are accompanied by Dogmatix, the little dog Obelix.
* The Gallic village:
O Asterix, the warrior;
O Obelix, deliveryman menhirs, Asterix best friend and avid hunts (or boar to the Romans) and interminable feasts;
O Dogmatix, dog Obelix;
Recurring characters in Asterix o, chief of the tribe who travels most often on a shield supported by two porters;
O Bonemine, wife of Recurring characters in Asterix;
O Panoramix, the village druid who prepares the Magic Potion and other mixtures;
O Agecanonix, dean of the village, married to a young woman known by the name of Madame Agecanonix;
O Assurancetourix, the village bard whose musical numbers are not appreciated;
O Cétautomatix, blacksmith who is the ancestor of all music critics and whose principal occupation is to prevent Assurancetourix sing;
O Ordralfabétix, fish whose freshness of the fish themselves-often causes fights;
O Iélosubmarine, fish, wife of Ordralfabétix;
# Other Gauls:
* Falbala, a young woman from the village, including Obelix is in love, living with her husband Condate Tragicomix;
* Zaza (short for Coriza), another charming Gallic;
* Aplusbégalix, leader of the nearby village of Serum;
* Amérix, manufacturer of gold hooks set at Lutèce, cousin of Obelix;
# The Romans:
* Julius Caesar;
* Brutus, adopted son of Caesar;
Caïus * Enhanced centurion ... And of course the Legionnaires;
* Claudius Malosinus, Quaestor;
* Tullius Detritus, wool zizanie
# Other characters:
* Red Beard, captain of the pirates, whose boat was sunk by regularly Asterix and Obelix (originally a parody of the series Redbeard, later becoming a recurring gag in the Asterix albums);
* Triple-Patte, a large pirate enthusiast Latin citations of all kinds;
* Baba, another pirate.
1. Asterix (1959 - 1961)
2. The Serpe gold (1960-1962)
3. Asterix and the Goths (1961-1963)
4. Gladiator Asterix (1962-1964)
5. The Tour de Gaul Asterix (1963-1965)
6. Asterix and Cleopatra (1963-1965)
7. The Battle Heads (1964-1966)
8. Asterix in Britain (1965-1966)
9. Asterix and the Normans (1966-1967)
10. Legionnaire Asterix (1966-1967)
11. The arverne Shield (1967-1968)
12. Asterix at the Olympic Games (1968-1968)
13. Asterix and the cauldron (1968-1969)
14. Asterix in Hispania (1969-1969)
15. The Zizanie (1970-1970)
16. Asterix in Helvètes (1970-1970)
17. The Domaine des dieux (1971-1971)
18. Les Lauriers Caesar (1971-1972)
19. The Devin (1972-1972)
20. Asterix in Corsica (1973-1973)
21. The Gift of Caesar (1974)
22. The Great Crossing (1975)
23. Obelix and company (1976)
24. Asterix and the Belgians (1979)
25. The Grand Ditch (1980)
26. Asterix Odyssey (1981)
27. The Son of Asterix (1983)
28. Asterix in Rahàzade (1987)
29. The Rose and the sword (1991)
30. The Galère of Obelix (1996)
31. Asterix and Latraviata (2001)
32. The sky falls on his head (2005)
The albums Hachette edition (the first 24) were originally published by Dargaud (also owner of Pilot), which has lost the rights in 1998 following a series of trials by Albert Uderzo. The others are published by Éditions Albert-Rene.
Asterix has also given rise to albums that are not comic books but illustrated books.
* Albums published by Red and Gold (text and illustrations by Albert Uderzo, 1983):
O The Abominable Horrifix
O The Chariot Race
O The Fire apples
O Marmaille and mess
O Water from the sky
O The Illustrissime Belcantus
* Albums learned from film adaptations:
O Twelve Asterix Works (1976)
O surprise Asterix and Caesar
O Asterix and the coup of menhir
O Asterix and the Indians
O Asterix and the Vikings
O Asterix at the Olympic Games
O How Obelix fell into the pot of druid when he was small (text by Rene Goscinny illustrated by Albert Uderzo)
O The book Asterix
O Albert Uderzo chewed by his friends
O Asterix and retraction Gallic: It is a compilation of comics long just a few pages each. The first edition appeared in 1993, offered with the videotape of an animated Asterix choice. This album was also published under the title "Short History" albums for advertising and in the full Rombaldi editions. In 2003, it was reissued, including new stories and bonus. It contains short stories: Birth of an idea In 50 BC, The Return Gauloise, La Mascotte, Mini, Midi, Maxi ... Latinomanie, at the Gui An IX, Le Printemps Gauls, Obélishc'h, L'Antiquaire (exclusively in the 1993 edition), In 35 BC (Exclusively in the 2003 edition), Chanteclairix, the Gallic rooster (exclusively in the 2003 edition), and Olympic Lutèce (exclusively in the 2003 edition).
O Asterix and his friends: For 80 years Albert Uderzo, dozens of comic book artists create some planks on the universe of Asterix.
* Albums promotional offered by Total in 1992:
O Travel History
O History of Pirates
O History of Sports (these three albums are compilations of excerpts from the original albums, each addressing a specific theme).
The creation of the character
In 1959, it gives the small company Edifrance-Edipresse (created by Goscinny and Uderzo), the difficult task of creating a newspaper comic strips "for small french" Pilote. Goscinny began the idea of adapting the novel of Renart. Uderzo has designed a board when staff warns that the idea has already been used a few years earlier ...
Two months of the newspaper's exit, Rene Goscinny and Albert Uderzo gather in the small of HLM Uderzo (located opposite a cemetery in Bobigny). Rene then asks his friend Albert to cite significant periods of the history of France. René stops on the Gauls. In two hours the two friends created in joy the village, its inhabitants ...
The first adventure entitled soberly Asterix appear in the number 1 driver on Oct. 29, 1959.
The original Asterix had to be a large bare-chested baraqué embellished by whiskers (the typical profile of the characters created by Uderzo) Goscinny but asked his designer to represent small and rather maigrelet as in the imagination of René, was an Asterix anti-heroes. Albert Uderzo will have the opportunity then to draw Obelix, the nearest big big.
From 1961 1977
* 1961: The first Asterix album released in bookstores edited only 6000 copies.
* 1962: The release of Serpe gold (circulation of 15000 copies).
* 1963: Release of Asterix and the Goths (15000 copies).
* 1964: publication of Asterix gladiator (60000 copies).
* 1965: duTour consecutive outings of Gaul Asterix (60000 copies), which appeared for the first time the character of Dogmatix then 'Asterix and Cleopatra (100000 copies). French The first satellite launched into space is named Asterix.
* 1966: Fighting left the Chiefs (600000 copies) and "Asterix in Britain (900000 copies). Asterix made the cover of L'Express with the headline: "The phenomenon Asterix."
* 1967: Releases of Asterix and the Normans (1200000 copies), then 'Asterix legionnaire (1000000 copies). The cartoon character Asterix fate in the theater.
* 1968: Releases Shield arverne (1000000 copies) and 'Asterix at the Olympic Games (1200000 copies). A second cartoon is done: Asterix and Cleopatra
* 1969: Release of Asterix and the cauldron (1100000 copies), then 'Asterix in Hispania (1100000 copies).
* 1970: The releases of Zizanie (1000000 copies) and 'Asterix in Helvètes (1200000 copies).
* 1971: Area exit of the Gods (1100000 copies).
* 1972: sortie des Lauriers Caesar (1100000 copies) and Devin (1300000 copies).
* 1973: Release of Asterix in Corsica (1300000 copies).
* 1974: publication of Caesar's Gift (1400000 copies). Goscinny and Uderzo leave permanently driver. At the same time they create Studios Dogmatix to achieve the Asterix cartoons.
* 1975: Release of La Grande Traversée (1350000 copies).
* 1976 output of Obelix and company (1350000 copies) and the animated The Twelve Works Asterix.
* 1977: December 5, Rene Goscinny died at age 51 during a routine test of effort. It leaves dozens of rounds, thousands of characters and puns. The last joint creation of Goscinny and Uderzo, Asterix and the Belgians came out in 1979 and has a circulation of 1500000 copies. Uderzo, as a tribute, a rabbit sad shape on the stage of the final banquet, lapaing is the nickname that René Goscinny gave to his wife.
The after Goscinny
* 1979: Following a legal conflict, leaving Uderzo Dargaud and founded the Editions Albert Rene -
* 1980: Release of the Grand Ditch, whose first album is the scenario written by Albert Uderzo (1700000 copies).
* 1981: Release of Odyssey Asterix (1700000 copies).
* 1983: Release of the Son of Asterix (1700000 copies).
* 1985: exit to the animated film Asterix and the surprise of Caesar.
* 1986: Release of cartoon Asterix in Britain.
* 1987: publication of Asterix in Rahàzade (1700000 copies).
* 1989: Opening of Parc Astérix and exit of Asterix and the coup of menhir.
* 1991: The release of Rose and the sword (2000000 copies).
* 1995: Release of cartoon Asterix and the Indians.
* 1996: The release of Galère of Obelix.
* 1999: release of the first film featuring Asterix: Asterix and Obelix vs. Caesar directed by Claude Zidi. This film has totaled nearly 24000000 admissions in the world.
* 2001: publication of Asterix and Latraviata (3000000 copies).
* 2002: Release of the film at the cinema Asterix & Obelix: Mission Cleopatra directed by Alain Chabat. This movie was the most successful film since french La Grande Vadrouille with 42000000 admissions in the world.
* 2003: Release of Asterix and retraction Gallic (1100000 copies), an album consisting of mini-stories done by the tandem-Goscinny and Uderzo for Driver by Uderzo alone.
* 2005: publication of the sky falls on his head (3200000 copies).
* 2006: Release of cartoon Asterix and the Normans.
* 2008: theatrical release of the film Asterix and Obelix at the Olympic Games Frederic Forestier and Thomas Langmann. The film has been given a huge budget of nearly 80 million euros.
A comic book for all ages
The success of this series can be explained by the fact that his humor is aimed at all age groups. Children enjoy drawing caricature of Uderzo, ridiculous situations, frequent disputes between the characters and violence burlesque stories. Adults enjoy the puns in gusts, the parody of the official history of the era and the many cultural references, we can mention as an example the citations made by the various characters, ranging from basic Latin ( Roman characters speak Latin phrases happy that the sponsors have caught directly in the pages of roses Larousse dictionary) to the literal translation of foreign expressions (in Asterix in Britain, the heroes encounter Bretons who speak french island using a syntax similar that of their descendants, the English speaking for example of boiling water instead of boiling water).
The anachronisms are numerous and often return in the context of the ancient world, issues of contemporary society (Lutèce also congested by traffic that Paris, congestion going on holiday, and the madness of pop concerts, the excesses of capitalism .. .), offering comments or cultural policies that are not necessarily within the reach of most young readers. In many ways, the Gauls as presented in comic books can also be seen as caricatures of their descendants, the French. The humour of the comic book will depend largely on stereotypes and different people there are being caricatures: the Corsicans are presented as likely, lazy and taciturn, British (caricaturés through their ancestors, the Bretons Island) presented as flegmatiques, cooks and poor driving their tank on the left rather than the right, and so on.
The puns are many, Goscinny has spread to different ages.
Some examples of puns
* The names of most of the characters appearing in some thirty albums of Asterix are based on puns, starting with the name of Asterix, which evokes the sign typographical called "asterisk". Another example is the character of Dogmatix, whose name is reminiscent of the phrase "fixed idea," but also the Gauloise Iélosubmarine, whose name recalls the song of the Beatles Yellow Submarine, and the dean of the village, which call logically Âgecanonix (name referring to the term "canonical age"), and many others. In addition, all names ending in Gauls ix (Asterix but Boulimix, Ocatarinetabellatchitchix ...), those of Gauloises usually finishes in ine (Bonemine, Iélosubmarine, and so on., Falbala part exceptions), all those Normans in af (Grossebaf, Autograf, Batdaf ...), on the model of King Olaf II saint of Norway, all those Iberians in the "on" (y Soupalognon Crouton ...), Bretons in ax (Jolitorax, Antrax Goths ...), en ik (Téléféric, Périféric ...), Romans us (Garovirus, Roméomontaigus, ...), infarction Greeks as bone or (Plexigas, Invinoveritas ...) and Egyptians in is (Numérobis, Screwdrivers, Amonbofis ...). For more examples, see the list of characters in Asterix.
* In Asterix at the Olympic Games: athletes from different parts of Greece marched into the arena: "It starts with the parade of Thermopylae. They are followed by those of Samothrace, confident of victory, those of Milo came ... Those of Kythera come alight, who arrived in Marathon course, those of Macedonia are very mixed; spartan are barefoot ... Rhodes has sent only one representative, a colossus. Goscinny "here refers (in order) to the Parade of Thermopylae (a geographical location), the Victory of Samothrace (a famous statue of the Louvre), the Venus de Milo (another statue du Louvre), L ' boarding for Cythera (a painting by Antoine Watteau), in the course of the marathon, at the Macedonia vegetables and the Colossus of Rhodes (one of the seven wonders of the world).
* In Asterix in Hispania: Asterix and Obelix encounter a Gauls who goes on vacation in Hispania. It asked about rising prices in Hispania in these terms: "Every summer, Iberians become harshest! "Here the word play is based on the phonetic similarity between Iberian language and winter
* In the area of the gods: a master of slaves spoke to one of his slaves, a Numide and strength to work. The Numide who drank the magic potion sends it in the air. One of the spectators from the scene said: "Yes ... We must never speak to a dryly Numide. Here, thanks to the pronunciation of Numide (which sounds like wet), Goscinny created a beautiful contradiction.
In addition to historical figures as Julius Caesar and Cleopatra, many characters existing or previously existing occurred over the successive albums, in the form of humorous winks. For example, Zizanie depicts a Roman centurion who has the traits of the actor Lino Ventura, very popular at the time the album was released. This practice helps to provide different levels of reading at work (children, and even adults, will not necessarily recognize all the personalities caricatured) and prevents the reduction to the rank of "comic book for children." We can note the appearances of:
* Jean Graton (Serpe gold)
* Charles Laughton (Serpe gold)
* Georges Fronval (Asterix gladiator)
* Raimu (The Tour de Gaul Asterix)
* Pierre Tchernia (Asterix legionnaire, Asterix in Corsica, The Gift of Caesar, Obelix and company, Asterix and the Belgians)
* Jean Marais (Asterix legionnaire)
* Rene Goscinny (Asterix and the cauldron, Asterix at the Olympic Games, Obelix and Company, and The Odyssey Asterix)
* Albert Uderzo (Asterix and the cauldron, Asterix at the Olympic Games and Obelix and Company)
* Gerard Calvi (Asterix in Hispania)
* Guy Lux (The domain of the gods)
* André Alerme (The Gift of Caesar)
* Jacques Chirac (Obelix and company)
* Stan Laurel and Oliver Hardy (Obelix and company)
* Annie Cordy (Asterix and the Belgians)
* Eddy Merckx (Asterix and the Belgians)
* Sean Connery (The odyssey Asterix)
* Bernard Blier (The odyssey Asterix)
* Jean Gabin (The odyssey Asterix)
* Aldo Maccione (The pink and the sword)
* Kirk Douglas (The galley of Obelix)
* The Beatles (Asterix in Britain)
* John Richard (Laurel Caesar)
* John Paul Rouland (The galley of Obelix)
* Arnold Schwarzenegger (The sky falls on his head)
Characters from other works of fiction appears in Asterix
Characters from other works of fiction will also appear in the form of winks in Asterix:
* Caesar, the Marseilles Trilogy of Marcel Pagnol, appears in the Tour de Gaul Asterix, in the guise of the man who was his interpreter in movies: Raimu
* Don Quixote and Sancho Panza appear in Asterix in Hispania
* Achilles Heel, the eponymous comic strip, appears in Roman legionnaire Asterix in Britain, at page 14. As we can see, after the battle, lying, red nose, saying its characteristic "hop! "
* The "Marsupilamix" alias Marsupilami, appears in The Battle of heads (like beast presented to the carnival)
* Dupondt, in the series Tintin and Snowy, appear in Asterix in Belgium, on page 31. "Player" as their habit, they announced the arrival of Caesar, according to their characteristic mode of expression: "Julius Caesar arrived in Belgium - I would say even more: Cules Jésar arrived in Gelbique. "One might also note that the lettering of their bubble is in the style of Tintin, and not in that of Asterix
* The Grand Vizier Iznogoud is mentioned in Asterix in Rahàzade: Guru Kiwoàlàh said that, like his cousin Iznogoud, he wants to become Rajah in place of Rajah
* Frankenstein creature made an appearance as a member of the crew of pirates in Odyssey Asterix
Anachronismes and approximations
Although the cartoon is very well documented in many respects, the image it gives of daily life in Gaul should not be taken literally:
* Chimneys in the huts: the Gauls were unaware of the chimney, the smoke evacuation is done via openings in the same gear to the roof. Their homes were also often much closer to homes than Roman entered in the series;
* Holding the druid Panoramix: constant white robe, the ceremonial dress;
* Helmets: the men wear their constant war material on them (helmet, sword);
* Menhirs: the Gauls have probably never high menhirs. They existed before the arrival of the Gauls and, in any case, they would raise more at the time of Caesar;
* The Shield: The fact of raising a bulwark head is not because of the Gauls but Barbarians, including Franks, who brought this custom in the fifth century Gaul;
* For men, wearing systematic moustache: menswear more evidenced among Francs than among Celts;
* It is also unlikely to find in the same village a druid and a bard, because their functions are very similar.
Moreover errors "authentic" seem to have crept into the series:
* Julius Caesar "emperor" in reality it has never been this way, since the function commonly known as the appellation has been established that some thirty years later by Auguste, plus it does It is never built palaces in Rome, where he has exercised alone and personal power between -46 (final victory over Pompey and his supporters) and -44 (date of his murder);
* "Circus Maximus" designed the monument in comics varies depending on the albums but never does to reality. In Asterix gladiator, it is akin to the Colosseum, the great amphitheatre of Rome, which hosted actually fighting gladiators and wild animals, but the foundation stone was laid in 70, more than a century after that 'Asterix and Obelix had visited the Eternal City. In Les Lauriers Caesar, the drawing represents the monument, which existed in ancient Rome under the name of "Circus Maximus", but it was the big racetrack in the city, which took place horse racing and tanks and which has never hosted one gladiator combat, in addition, the accurate translation of the name french is "big circus", and not "circus" maxim;
* Roman camps: if the representation and organization of Roman military camps is quite close to reality, it is very simplified, especially those surrounding the Gallic village: under any circumstances, a centurion, a junior officer commanding centurie, including unit 60 to 90 men can run a camp, as only the legions body from 5000 to 6000 soldiers (or 10000 to 12000 men with the auxiliary troops and logistics) controlled by legates or general set of military camps, plus the permanent camps, like those watching the village were built of stone, not by fences made of wood, reserved for temporary camps;
* Potatoes: this vegetable was introduced in Europe in the sixteenth century by the Conquistadores who brought with America; never a Roman legionnaire Gallic or did not eat peeled;
* References to Pompey in Asterix and Latraviata: If the Roman general had fled following the return of Caesar in Rome, it is represented in cartoons portrayed as a young man, when he was younger d 'about 55 years at the time the story takes place, it has not been captured in Gaul and delivered to Caesar, but assassinated in Egypt in -48 by men of Ptolemy. In fact, Pompey never caught on an army against Caesar in Gaul, Caesar who did it.
However, many historical elements are skillfully integrated true to the adventures of Asterix: conquest of Britain (even though it was not the fact of Julius Caesar, who did that incursions), Iberian rebellions, fights against Caesar in Africa former supporters of Pompey, liaison with Cleopatra, the Questors, 20 years of service in the army, the military said in "turtle".
A work to varying interpretations
In the 1960's, a section of the press described Asterix as a comic book Gaullist. The small village Gaul resisting valiantly to the Roman invader would be a metaphor of the Patriotic France of General de Gaulle (remember he came to the presidency less than a year before the creation of comic books) refusing hegemony of the United States. More recently, the work has been the subject of a similar interpretation in the work of the university Nicolas Rouvière, Asterix and the lights of civilization . Goscinny and Uderzo has always rejected such an interpretation, saying that they had no intention of making a comic book to the glory of France.
Asterix is now more often described, not as a patriotic work, but as a satire. The inhabitants of the small village gaulois would caricatures of French, people presented as a fighter, angry, not very intelligent (with a few exception of beings) and passing a lot of time to argue. Thus, the actor Clovis Cornillac, interprets the new Asterix at the cinema, said about this character: "Asterix is us. This is not the most fun he mouth, it is in bad faith, a little killjoy. This species of dwarf proud, it looks to me. The head held high, but 1, 10 metre."
Adapter Asterix at the cinema is an idea long overdue. The first projects, aborted, Louis de Funès imagined in the role of small Gallic. Finally, it took until 1990 and the leadership of producer Claude Berri for the project is actually launched. Three films have been released so far.
1. Asterix and Obelix vs. Caesar (1999) by Claude Zidi with Christian Clavier (Asterix), Gerard Depardieu (Obelix), Roberto Benigni (Tullius Detritus)
2. Mission Cleopatra (2002) by Alain Chabat with Christian Clavier (Asterix), Gerard Depardieu (Obelix), Jamel Debbouze (Numérobis)
3. Asterix at the Olympic Games (2008) Frederic Forestier, Thomas Langmann with Clovis Cornillac (Asterix), Gerard Depardieu (Obelix), Benoit Poelvoorde (Marcus Junius Brutus)
It should be noted that certain characters change from actor to each film: Panoramix was embodied in the order by Claude Piéplu, Claude Rich, and Jean-Pierre Cassel, or Julius Caesar by Gottfried John, Alain Chabat, and Alain Delon. The hero in yellow whiskers, it was played by Christian Clavier in the first two films, and by Clovis Cornillac in the third. Only Gerard Depardieu will retain its role as Obelix during the three films.
Read also Goscinny