The Ikebana (生け花orいけばな) also known as kadō (or花道华道), the Way of flowers is a traditional art based on Japanese floral arrangement.
Ikebana and representation
In contrast to the form of decorative floral arrangements in Western countries, the Japanese flower arrangement creates a harmony of linear construction, rhythm and color. While Westerners are trying to increase the quantity and colors of flowers, bringing their attention primarily on the beauty of the flower, the Japanese accentuate the linear aspect of the arrangement. They have developed an art that enhances both the vase, stems, leaves and branches that the flower itself. The entire structure of the Japanese flower arrangement is based on three main points symbolizing heaven, earth and humanity through the three pillars, asymmetry, space and depth.
History and origins
The origin of the ikebana is the kyōka (供花), the offering of flowers in Buddhist temples, which began in the sixth century in China. In these arrangements, flowers and branches were arranged so that they point toward the sky. A style of arrangement more sophisticated and called rikka or tachibana (立花), appeared in the fifteenth century. The rikka style reflects the magnificence of nature and the exhibits. For example, pine branches symbolize stones and rocks, chrysanthemum and white symbolizes a river or stream. The rikka art became popular in the seventeenth century, and he was considered as a decoration for ceremonies and celebrations. Nowadays, it is seen as an ancient form of flower arrangement and is increasingly rarely practiced.
The most significant change in the history of ikebana happens in the fifteenth century, when the shōgun Yoshimasa Ashikaga (1436 - 1490) led to Japan. Yoshimasa built large buildings and small houses to express his love of simplicity. They contained a tokonoma, or alcove, where people could place objects of art and floral arrangements. It was at this time that the rules of ikebana were simplified so that all social classes can enjoy this art.
Other major developments took place at the end of the sixteenth century. A more simple style of flower arrangement called nageire (投げ入れ) was born and was integrated into the tea ceremony. In this style, flowers are arranged in a vase as naturally as possible and whatever the materials used. Because of this association with the tea ceremony, this style is also called cha-bana (茶花, literally "flower tea").
In the 1890's, shortly after the Meiji Constitution, which led to the modernization and Westernization of Japan, was developed a new style of ikebana called moribana (盛り花). This style appears, on the one hand, due to the introduction of western flowers and, secondly, because of the Westernization of Japanese lifestyle. The moribana style, which creates a new form of freedom in the floral arrangement is used for gardens. It is a style that you can enjoy whatever its location and which can be adapted to both formal situations (ceremonies) than non-formal situations.
In France, the practice and teaching of ikebana were introduced by Kikou Yamata, Franco-Japanese writer who made the first demonstration in Paris in 1930, at the fair autumn.
Just as the tea ceremony and calligraphy, ikebana was one of the arts that traditionally women were studying at school to get married. Today, the floral arrangements are regarded as one of the five traditional arts japonais.L 'ikebana is practiced on many occasions, such as festivals and ceremonies, and his teaching has continued to spread among a number of our contemporaries, intérréssés by tradition, art and culture of Japan.
* "Knowing theory is not the most important to stay away from the" flower pot. "Ikebana is watching to know plants, to meet beautiful compositions.Pour that it must be observe and search for the most beautiful côté.Tout-long practice of floral arrangement, will attempt to get in touch with the flowers and making conversation with them on savourera this meeting unique.Chacun is an artist with a branch, if he knows listen "Noriko Onda, Sogetsu school.
Each school (Sogetsu, Ohara, Senshin Ikenobo etc) has its own styles and some classical styles can be found in many schools, but with different names.
* Traditional styles
O rikka (立花)
O seika or shōka (or活花生花)
O nageire or cha-bana (投げ入れ/茶花)
* Styles "recent"
O moribana (盛り花)
+ Shizenka (sometimes spelled) (chizenka自然花)
+ Jiyūka (sometimes spelled) (djyuka自由花)
O shinseika (新生花)
Read also Ikebana