The origami (折り紙, oru, folding, and kami, paper) is the name of the Japanese art of folding paper.
This art is from Asia, especially from China and Japan. In China, he is called jiezhi, a term that combines the techniques of folding paper and paper cut, which predominates on the cutting folding. The Japanese origami certainly has its origins in ceremonies, where the folded paper and allowed to decorate the tables (usually the pitchers of sake).
The oldest use of origami in religion known to date is Katashiro, representing a deity, used during ceremonies Ise Shinto temple.
Historians have recently discovered the model lost Tamatebako (Pandora's Box), an object taken from a Japanese folk tale of Urashima Taro, in a book published in 1734, "Ranma-Zushiki." It contains two images identified in 1993 by Yasuo Koyanagi as Tamatebako model. Masao Okamura, a historian of origami, has managed to recreate the model, which, contrary to the theory of traditional origami, involves cutting and pasting.
Since the early 1800's, Frieddrich Froebel, the creator of nursery schools, acknowledged that the assembly, weaving, folding and cutting paper were teaching aids for the development of children.
Joseph Albers, the father of the modern theory of colors and minimalist art, taught and folding origami paper in the years 1920 and 1930. His method was to use sheets of paper folded according round coils or curves, it influenced modern artists like origami Kunihiko Kasahara.
The work of Japanese Akira Yoshizawa, a prolific creator of origami models and author of books on origami, inspired the contemporary renaissance. The modern origami attracts fans from all over the world, with ever more complex designs and new techniques: folding wet, which allows the finished product to better keep its shape, or the construction of modular origami (or kusudama) in which several pieces are assembled to form an entirely decorative.
In 1978, in France, is the Movement of French Plieurs Paper (MFPP).
The crane Japanese
One of the representations of the most famous origami crane is Japan. The crane is an important animal for Japan (a satellite carries the name of Tsuru (crane)). A legend even says: Whoever miles folded paper cranes will see his wish fulfilled.
The origami crane has become a symbol of peace because of this legend, and a Japanese girl named Sadako Sasaki. Sadako was exposed child, radiation of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. She then became hibakusha, a survivor of the atomic bomb. Having heard the legend, she decided to fold cranes miles to heal. She died of leukemia in 1955, at age 12, after folded 644 cranes. His companions class plièrent the remaining number and she was buried with the garland of a thousand cranes.
His friends erected a statue granite representative Sadako Park in Hiroshima Peace: a young girl standing open hands, a flight of paper cranes at your fingertips. Every year the statue is adorned with thousands of wreaths of a thousand cranes (Sembatsuru).
Since he joined in the tradition of folding paper cranes miles when a close friend or is gravely ill. Beyond superstition, this act provides courage and willingness of the patient, and that feels surrounded.
The moving story of Sadako was told in many books and films. In one version, Sadako wrote a haiku whose meaning is as follows:
I peace on your wings and you steal from all over the world so that more children do not die as well.
For a Japanese, origami is more than art: it is living culture.
The origami uses a leaf, usually square (but not always the case), that it would not cut in principle.
A list of basic techniques can be consulted in the chapter origami technique. From these basic folds, valley or mountain, a "music" Bend lists figures tell commodities (base of the bird, based water bombers, and so on.). The origami can take many forms as simple as a hat or a paper airplane, or as complex as a representation of the Eiffel Tower, a gazelle or a stégosaure, which require more than an hour and a half of work . Sometimes the most difficult figures are realized in paper metallized paper "sandwich" rather than plain paper, since it lets you do more tricks before that the media is too damaged to be folded again. Another technique, the wet paper, creates reliefs and interesting curves.
The origami can be an animal, plant or object, but can also represent geometric shapes simple or complex: these are the so-called "modular origami" or "rings". They are generally composed of the same basic folding repeated several times and fit into each other to give the final shape.
The math and origami
The origami is a subject of study for teachers of mathematics: geometry in the fingers
It is also an object of study of mathematics: the "rigidity" is a discipline of mathematics, linked to the notion of disinclinaison in differential geometry. She had technical applications: deployment of a satellite solar panel folded ...
The origami allows the trisection of the angle (knowing that it is impossible to rule and compass): therefore, it was important to look far led origami (see: axiom Huzita).
Here is a simple example: Either a paper triangle ABC (we see that we can afford diversions of the rule of square paper). Perform the trisection of the angle A (as we flounder in a letter three); restart with B and C: we just discovered experimentally theorem Morley.
Various exercises geometry can be derived from the practice of origami.
Reag also Origami