Kabane (Jap.姓) were hereditary title stand in the historic Japan, the rank and political location defined. There were 24 such titles in the original system, after the reform of eight 684.
The Kabane is to stand hereditary title, the uji (family associations, clan) zukamen. These were by origin, property or professional. They were the families or family names associated with-no readjusted.
Uji were essentially weitverzweigte large families or groups, which originate in the same person (including Kaiser) and Kami zurückführten, often with their own Uji-specific names, but all members wore the same Kabane. The origins of this classification system, in the Japanese early days (4.-5. Century). There are 24 different Kabane known, but they are not in an exact sequence set. Ceremony (or increase) was made by the rulers. Association tent ceremonies were also deserved to individuals. Overall, this system, however, especially before the Hofrangsystem (under Chinese model), too inflexible, as a ceremony Kabane privileges to the (very large) family associations, some hereditary positions at the court were connected. The clan chiefs controlled certain, as tomo-or-be designated, professional groups (guilds), the most aces in a rear-like status.
* Omi (臣): Hofadlige of Geblüt,
* Muraji (连): Hofadlige, descendants of the kami,
* Miyatsuko (造): leaders of professional groups, in the service of the Emperor of Japan
* Kuni no miyatsuko (国造): heads of a province
* Kimi (公, ko)
* Kimi (君, kun),
* Atai (値) (reading atahi, atae)
* Fubito (史): Schreiber,
* Agatanushi (県主): Landadelige responsible for the administration imperial goods,
* Suguri (村主): Dorfschulzen, often immigrants.
Kabane starting at 684
Under Emperor Temmu was 684/10/1 edict, an 8-level ranking system established (八色の姓yakusa no kabane; hasshō)). Already in the years before had begun individual in Uji Kabane appropriate conditions. For example, 680/81 Temmu-tennō awarded to eighteen individuals from 14 clans muraji the title. The old Kabane existed, however, no reclassification took place. This raises some problems with the assignment. In essence, most old kimi (公) in the highest class mahito transferred; omi, kimi (spelling kun) asomi. Many obito, miyatsuko, kishi, atahi, fuhito, agatanushi etc. in the new - the rank lower - provisionally (680-1) to muraji, then some of these 684 to sukune or imiki, mostly in muraji respectively. The "old" - höherstehenden - muraji were mostly sukune. Many of the most influential Uji, which originate in Kami zurückführten (which naturally is not historical evidence exists), also received the rank sukune. Ceremonies of the lower ranks are only 4 from the Government Mommus (697-707) in the annals.
In later times was Emperor descendants, usually in the 5th Generation of the imperial family "out", ie they were family names given to mahito. In conclusion remains to say that the top two (new) ranks offspring of the Imperial House remained reserved.
A systematic reclassification of all Uji did not take place. A detailed breakdown of genealogies Shinsen Shōjiroku was in the ninth century, while the individual Uji in three (serious) categories divorced:
1st Such imperial Geblüts (皇别, kobetsu)
2nd Descendants of the kami (神别, shimbetsu)
3rd Descendants of immigrants (shoban) or indefinite nature (With those immigrants are here, from the Korean Peninsula incoming carrier of civilization meant for the 450 came. From the invaders of 369 emerged dominant clans (especially Soga, Ki, Kose, Heguri, Katsuragi) were at that time already japanisiert.
Ranking: Yakusa no Kabane
1st mabito (真人): 1 Rank for imperial relatives (descendants of the 5th generation or later)
2nd ason / asomi (朝臣): 2 Rank, then for people of 5 (-Yard) Rank up as honourable nickname. (Chōshin reading, Ger courtier)
3rd sukune (宿祢): nobles divine origin
4th imiki (忌寸): Fremdadel (such as members of the royal family of Paekche, the 663-8 after Wa (Japan) fled)
5th michi no shi (道师): for artisans, artists, etc., rarely awarded (dōshi reading, Ger Taoist, Mora),
6th omi (臣): (reading: shin, Ger vassal, subject)
7th muraji (连): (reading: tsurete, German companion, friend, appendage)
8th inaki: lower rank (literally: Reispflanzer)
Later, earned rank increases for families by awarding the prefix O (Ger large).
When the clan later more and more families in separate auftrennten, Kabane slowly came out of use.
Read also Amaterasu