Brazilian Composer


Heitor Villa-Lobos
Heitor Villa-Lobos (his first name is sometimes spelled Hector), born in Rio de Janeiro on March 5, 1887 and died in the same city on November 17, 1959, is a Brazilian composer.

With his father, a librarian and music lover with a vast culture, Villa-Lobos learned piano, clarinet and cello. This will be his preferred instrument. This young musician, rather self-discovers his passion with street musicians. At the age of sixteen in 1905, he decided to flee his home and will walk Brazil, particularly the northeastern regions, collecting during his wandering authentic traditional songs. "I felt stupid to continue to emulate Beethoven. For eight years I traveled in the most remote areas of Brazil thought I was dead and had even said Mass for the repose of my soul! But I reported this expedition incredible wealth. It then earns his living playing in cafes and restaurants. He had to perform other similar trips in the future, although it maintains a veil of mystery around them; his own testimony on adventures with cannibal tribes in northeastern is questionable.

Thereafter, he studied at the Institut National de Musique de Rio de Janeiro, although his music has never complied with any academic standard. As Villa-Lobos tell many years later: "My music is natural, like a waterfall." And also: "One foot in the academy and you are distorted."

After another trip ethno-musicology at the heart of the Amazon in 1912, Villa-Lobos returned to Rio de Janeiro. That, November 13, 1915, it captures the attention of this city by giving a concert of his music news. It caused a sensation. In 1923, it is enough to favoured officials to get a scholarship to study in Paris. He discovered the wealth of Europe. Upon his return in 1930, Villa-Lobos began a great career and educational policy and he was appointed director of music education in Rio de Janeiro. While continuing the composition, it supports the musical life of his country (organization of music education in schools and kindergartens, preparation concerts ...). He also founded the Conservatoire National de Chant orphéonique and the Brazilian Academy of Music.

In 1944, Villa-Lobos was on a trip to the USA to lead his works, obtaining a critical success and even some popular success. Major works were commissioned by American orchestras and he even wrote a soundtrack for Hollywood, for the interesting film of 1945 Green Mansions. The 1940's are for him a period of triumph. As a composer and conductor, Villa-Lobos celebrated east of Los Angeles to New York and Paris. In 1957, for his seventieth birthday, Brazil establishes the year Villa-Lobos.

He died on 17 November 1959 in Rio de Janeiro, a city of his heart, leaving about 1 000 works of all styles, with 12 symphonies, 17 string quartets, operas, ballets, suites, symphonic poems, concertos , Vocal works, piano pieces, religious music and film music.

Villa-Lobos, beyond being a great composer, was also a music teacher for his country. He conceived a system of learning music for generations of Brazilians, based on the rich musical culture of Brazil, and taking its roots in a profound patriotism and always explicit. He composed choral music for large choirs of schoolchildren, often adapted from folklore. What he has left in Brazil today, even among new generations with high schools or samba MTV is a deep sense of pride and love for him, mingled similar feelings for their country. It is surprising, considering that this is a composer of music "classical" death for over forty years, one would find hard to equate this craze in North America.

Major Works
Villa-Lobos was known for his prolixity, although he probably exaggerated the number of works he wrote numerous works are arrangements of pieces before. At the end of his life in particular, Villa-Lobos did a lot of rewriting.

His style is unique and combines European influences, including that of Bach, favorite composer Villa-Lobos, with sources of traditional Brazilian music.

The works below represent his musical legacy. With the exception of books lost, they are frequently performed in recitals and concerts throughout the world and also recorded on CD. With the exception also Nonetto and operas. Even the symphonies are now available in a full registration.

The book's most popular Villa-Lobos Bachianas Brasileiras the east 5, for voice and eight cellos, but also played by many other instrumental formations. The music for guitar alone, including preludes, studies and Choros 1 coming in second in the most popular works. The music is the largest in the Choros, Bachianas Brasileiras and the series of string quartets, and in many solo piano pieces - as Choros 5 and Bachianas Brasileiras 4, for example - very popular with pianists and the public.

* Bachianas Brasileiras
o No. 1 for 8 cellos (1932)
o No. 2 for chamber orchestra (1933)
o No. 3 for piano and orchestra (1934)
o No. 4 for piano (1930-40); orchestrated in 1942)
o No. 5 for voice and 8 cellos (1938)
o No. 6 for flute and bassoon (1938)
o No. 7 for orchestra (1942)
o No. 8 for orchestra (1944)
o No. 9 for chorus and string orchestra (1944)

* Choros
o Introduction to Choros for guitar and orchestra (1929)
o No. 1 guitar (1920)
o No. 2 for flute and clarinet (1921 or 1924)
o No. 3 men for choir and wind instruments (1925)
o No. 3 to 4 horn and trombone (1926)
o No. 5 for Piano (1926) "Alma Brasileira"
o No. 6 for orchestra (1926)
o No. 7 for winds, violin and cello (1924)
o No. 8 for large orchestra and 2 pianos (1925)
o No. 9 for orchestra (1929)
o No. 10 for chorus and orchestra (1925) "Rasga o Coração"
o No. 11 for piano and orchestra (1928)
o No. 12 for orchestra (1929)
o No. 13 for 2 orchestras and band (1929) - LOST
o No. 14 for orchestra, band and chorus (1928) - LOST
o Choros bis, for violin and cello (1928)

* Concertos
o Suite for piano and orchestra (1913)
o Cello Concerto no. 1 (1915)
o Momoprécoce, fantasy for piano and orchestra (1921)
o Fantasia on Movimentos Mistos, for violin and orchestra (1921)
o Ciranda das Sete Notas for bassoon and string orchestra (1933)
o Piano Concerto no. 1 (1945)
o Piano Concerto no. 2 (1948)
o Piano Concerto no. 3 (1952-57)
o Piano Concerto no. 4 (1952)
o Piano Concerto no. 5 (1954)
o Fantaisie for soprano saxophone, three horns and strings (1948)
o Guitar Concerto (1951)
o Concerto for harp (1953)
o Cello Concerto no. 2 (1953)
o Fantaisie for cello and orchestra
o Concerto for Harmonica
o Concerto Grosso for wind quartet and wind ensemble (1959)
o Chôros no. 11 and Bachianas no. 3 are also parts concertos for piano and orchestra

* Symphonies
o No. 1 O Imprevisto, Imprévu (1920)
o No. 2 Ascenção, Ascension (1917)
o No. 3 A Guerra, La Guerre (1919)
o No. 4 A Vitória, La Victoire (1919)
o No. 5 A Paz, La Paix (1920) - LOST
o No. 6 Montanhas do Brasil, Mountains of Brazil (1944)
o No. 7 (1945)
o No. 8 (1950)
o No. 9 (1951)
o No. 10 Sumé Pater Patrium, Amerindia (1952)
o No. 11 (1955)
o No. 12 (1957)

* Other Works Orchestrales (including scores for ballet)
o Tédio of Alvorada, symphonic poem (1916)
o Naufrágio of Kleônicos, symphonic poem (1916)
o Dancas Africanas (1916)
o Sinfonietta no. 1 (1916)
o Iára (1917)
o Amazonas, ballet and symphonic poem (1917)
o Uirapuru, ballet (1917)
o Dança Frenética (1918)
Dança o dos Mosquitos (1922)
o Francette and Piá (1928, orch. 1958)
o Rudepoema (1926, orch. 1932)
o O Papagaio do moleque, kite, kid, a passage Symphony (1932)
o Caixinha of Boas Festas, ballet and symphonic poem (1932)
o dos Evolução Aeroplanos (1932)
o Danca da terra, ballet (1939)
o Mandú-Cárárá, Profane Cantata / Ballet children for mixed choir, children choir and orchestra (1940)
o Suite Saudade da Juventude nr. 1 (1940)
o Madona, symphonic poem (1945)
o Sinfonietta no. 2 (1947)
o Erosão, Erosion, symphonic poem (1950)
o Rudá, ballet and symphonic poem (1951)
o Opening of Man Tel (1952)
o Alvorada na Floresta Tropical, opening (1953)
o Odisséia de uma raça, symphonic poem (1953)
o Gênesis, ballet and symphonic poem (1954)
o Emperor Jones, a ballet (1956)
o Fantasia em Três Movimentos (in the body of choros) (1958)
o Suite no. 1 for chamber orchestra (1959)
o Suite no. 2 for chamber orchestra (1959)

* Chamber Music
o-fantasy Sonata no. 1 for violin and piano, Désespérance, Despair (1913)
o-fantasy Sonata no. 2 for violin and piano (1914)
o Sonata for violin and piano no. 3 (1920)
o Trio for piano and strings no. 1 (1911)
o Trio for piano and strings no. 2 (1915)
o Trio for piano and strings no. 3 (1918)
o Mystique Sextet for flute, oboe, saxophone, harp, guitar and celesta (1917)
o Quarteto Simbolico, for flute, alto saxophone, harp, celesta and female voices (1921)
o Trio for oboe, clarinet and bassoon (1921)
o Nonetto, Impressão rápida de todo o Brasil, A Quick Impression of All Brazil (1923)
o Quinteta em forma de choros, for flute, oboe, clarinet, English horn or horn and bassoon (1928)
o Quartet for flute, oboe, clarinet and bassoon (1928)
o Assobio a Jato (whistle), for flute and cello (1930)
o Distribuição de Flores for flute and guitar (1937)
o Trio for violin, viola and cello (1945)
o Divagação for cello, piano and percussion bass (adlib.) (1946)
o Duo for violin and viola (1946)
o Fantasia Concertante for piano, clarinet and bassoon (1953)
o Duo for oboe and bassoon (1957)
o Quinteto Instrumental, for flute, violin, viola, cello and harp (1957)
o Fantasia Concertante for 16 or 32 cellos (1958)
o Choros no. 2,3,4,7 and Bachianas 1 and 6 for various instruments in chamber music

* String Quartets
o No. 1 (1915)
o No. 2 (1915)
o No. 3 (1917)
o No. 4 (1917)
o No. 5 (1931)
o No. 6 (1938)
o No. 7 (1942)
o No. 8 (1944)
o No. 9 (1945)
o No. 10 (1946)
o No. 11 (1948)
o No. 12 (1950)
o No. 13 (1951)
o No. 14 (1953)
o No. 15 (1954)
o No. 16 (1955)
o No. 17 (1957)
o There are only drafts of the Quartet No18.

* Operas
o Izaht (1914)
o Magdalena (1948)
o Yerma (1955)
o Daughter of the Clouds (1957)

* Ballets
o see other orchestral works

* Music for Films
o Descobrimento do Brasil (1938)
o Green Mansions (1959) - (adapted version in concert: Forest of the Amazon)

* Works for Guitar only
o Choros no. 1 (1920)
o popular Brazilian Suite (1928)
o Twelve Studies (1929)
o Five Preludes (1940)

* Music for Piano alone
o Ibericarabe (1914)
o Ondulando (1914)
o Danças Características Africanas (1915)
o floral Suite (1918)
o Histórias da carochinha (1919)
o A Lenda do Caboclo (1920)
o das crianças Carnival (1920)
o Prole do Baby, first round (1920)
o Prole do Baby, second round (1921)
o Prole do Baby, third round (1926) - LOST
o A Fiandeira (1921)
o Rudêpoema (1921-26)
o Sul America (1925)
o Cirandinhas (1925)
o Cirandas (1926)
o das Saudades Selvas Brasileiras (1927)
o Bachianas Brasileiras no. 4 (1930-40)
o Francette and Pià (1932)
o Valsa da dor (1932)
o Guia Prático (1932-49)
Ciclo o brasileiro (1936-37)
+ Plantio do caboclo, La Plantation du Paysan
+ Impressões seresteiras, Impressions of a Musician Serenade
+ Festa no sertão, The Day in the Desert
+ Dança do Indio Branco, Dance of the Indian Blanc
o As Três Marias (1939)
o New York Sky-Line Melody (1939)
o Poema Singelo (1942)
o Homenagem a Chopin (1949)

Read also New York Philharmonic


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