The reggae is l' one of the musical expressions jamaïcaines most known and most popular. It became, with the favour of its international success, a musical style impossible to circumvent carrying d' a culture which is clean for him.
With l' origin of the reggae
“It there d' access the mento, our traditional local music. The ska, the rocksteady and the reggae took with the mento the play with hitch of the rhythmic guitar, and also certain transformed songs. If d' is tested; to establish relations between the musics, and to see which continuities exist d' one period with another, one can isolate the play with hitch from the guitar, that l' one can hear in the mento with the banjo, the ska, and which also corresponds to the hitch in the rythm & blues and in particular in the piano boogie-woogie. C' is the " beat" between times, c' is the Chock-Cutin' - Cutin' - Cutin' , c' is the one AND two AND three AND… You find it in all our musics, the reggae, Calypso, the mento, the music of Martinique, of the Guadeloupe, you find it in the hi-life, mérengue. Moreover this attraction towards l' " after-beat" finds itself in the churches, with the rates/rhythms of the tambourines, the slappings of the hands… A great part of the mento comes from the popular music. But we have also very strong traditions folk, which penetrate in the music with various stages of its development. For example you have the music Burru, the African traditional drum on which people make songs on the local events. These songs are those qu' they sing while digging in the fields, of the diggin' songs…” - Linton Kwesi Johnson
The reggae appeared at the end of the years 1960. It is the fruit many meetings and interbreedings: evolution of the ska and the rocksteady, it finds its roots in the traditional musics caribéennes like the mento and Calypso, but also is very influenced by the rythm& blues, drunk jazz and it music (the American music is then sails very about it in Jamaica). With these s' influences; that of African musics, movement rasta and songs nyabinghi adds, which use Burrus African (drums) brought by the slaves to Jamaica. This interbreeding s' will not stop there: aujourd' today many styles s' all over the world inspire, integrate or take again the style reggae. The reggae is aujourd' today a universal music, as that wished it which was its principal ambassador, Bob Marley. If the term appears about 1973 in the Western press, its origin is obscure. It could come from the word d' English jamaïcain, " streggae" , which nominates a person badly or too little equipped, and from there, the prostitutes; this word would have been modified by a radio jamaïcaine of l' time. D' other explanations exist, like that which makes the contraction of the expressions of it “regular Guy”, “regular people”, all in all a music made for “l' man in the street” (quotation Bob Marely, interview [ref. necessary]). For the singer Bob Marley, the term would have Spanish roots and would designate the “queen of the musics” (“musica LED rey”). According to d' other sources, it would be the contraction and l' deterioration of the English term “raggamuffin” (literally “tramp”) or perhaps of rege-rege “quarrel”. Another assumption, “reggae” would indicate a tribe of language bantou originating in the lake Tanganyika. Behind all these possible etymologies, the characteristics d' take shape; a musical genre made d' heritages, of mixings, d' appropriations and of confrontation to hard and rough reality. Lastly, last explanation, the term “reggae” would rise from the specificity of its rate/rhythm - “has ragged rythm” “a déguenillé” or “irregular” rate/rhythm - as supports it the guitarist of studio Hux Brown. Quite as problematic is the question of the paternity of the reggae as a musical genre itself; paternity which, contrary to the rocksteady, is very discussed: some allot the first disc of reggae to Maytals with Do the Reggay in August 1968. However, if Toots is certainly the first to use the word " reggae" in a song, d' other pieces with the tempo a little faster than the rocksteady already preceded the style during l' year 1968. Thus Pop-have-Signal of Lynford Anderson announced already, at the beginning of 1968, a new style of rate/rhythm, much faster. D' other compositions dispute the title of first reggae, whose Bang have Row of Stranger Cole and To ballast Sterling (for Bunny Lee), Nanny Goat de Larry Marshall and Alvin (under the direction of Jackie Mittoo, for Studio One), the first ignored version of the Drunk person Rebel de Bob Marley, and No more heartache of Beltones. This first phase d' evolution of the reggae, that l' period of the " is qualified; early reggae" , is characterized by a faster tempo, and l' acceleration of the play with hitch already present with the ska and the rocksteady. Then the tempo will slow down, the low one will still be done heavier, but the reggae will keep this low rhythmic base/prevalent battery and this swaying movement which is clean for him. Lee “Scratch” Perry is also with l' origin d' one of the first successes reggae of 1968, Long Shot (interpreted by Pioneers, with the young brothers Aston “Family Man” and Carlton Barrett with low/battery), where it uses rhythmic particularly fast. Scratch works then for Joe Gibbs and will leave it not to be credited for its work on this piece [ref. necessary]. - It will take again this piece on its account while launching out in the production, with its own label " upsetter" (enervor). " People Funny Boy" will make a paperboard in England. - Scratch will use thereafter innovating practices which will transform the reggae, like l' introduction of sound effects (l' origin of the sample). It will also found the legendary studio Black Ark where will be recorded, inter alia, Bob & The Wailers, The Congos, max Romeo, Murvin Junior.
Styles and characteristics
The reggae perhaps characterized by:
*generally, l' use of the low guitar, the electric guitar, the battery, and the scraper or its equivalent the jawbone which comes at the end of the measurement, and which accompany by the heavy songs d' emotion and which often, expresses the rejection for a " culture dominante".
*its rate/rhythm furnace happy, binary, rather heavy, with l' accent by the low one and battery weak times, in particular the third time (known aujourd' today under the name of one drop),
*what l' hitch is often qualified, because its agreements are found over the second and the fourth time - marked the rhythmic guitar or the keyboard (known under the name skank).
*Clear case over the 3rd time.
*From 1975 to 1980, the roots perdure in a new form: the rockers developed by Sly Dunbar. It is characterized by sharp and jerked blows of charleston. It occurs after the flying cymbal, style characterized by two blow of charleston on 2nd and the 4th time (rhythmic hitch) tssss-tssss.
*From the years 1981-1982, a new style of battery which perduré jusqu' with aujourd' today reign as a Master: the early dancehall. It s' d' acts; a binary beam gross case (the 1st time) clear case (the 3rd time). New the backing band of Chanel One, Roots Radics, is regarded as the absolute masters of instrumental Dancehall. C' is at this same period qu' explode the dub, on instrumental the dancehall, and a new wave of mixor with l' image of Scientist.
L' organ: The early reggae often have a structure d' organ borrowed from the old RNB, this one marking each eighth note d' a note. This named technique " shuffle" places itself where was happy the guitar (or skank) of the ska and strongly accentuates rhythmic dynamics, giving l' d' impression; to accelerate the tempo. The mythical riddim of Happy Down Babylon de Lee Perry is a typical example. This technique s' is rarefied thereafter, l' organ then accompanying often the skank (on 2nd and the 4th time) and sometimes opening the riddim by a melody introduction. L' the most mythical opening of riddim is probably that of the " Take has Ride" aka " Truth and Right" d' Al Campbell at One Studio. The guitar: it is always electric (very rare exceptions) and l' effect used is absolutely crucial. Very rare cases where a distortion rock'n'roll is used (ex: the Heathen de Marley) showed failures on the level of the result. The sound must be round and soft, while keeping its groove. The skank is sometimes doubled by a movement d' fast return ticket (" the pickin") or by l' d' use; an analogical box with echo or delay (preferably a Roland Space Echo RE201…). Often, a second guitar is posed simultaneously with the rhythmic guitar and poses melody agreements, sometimes a discrete solo, on the riddim. The low one: with l' origin the double basses marked time on the rates/rhythms ska. Low the reggae is electric and has more melody freedom. They use the lowest frequencies and voluntarily bring an effect weighing down the riddim. The low guitar forms the core of the riddim with the battery, music basically rhythmic, of the words even of Lee Perry. The low lines most outstanding (by ex: milk & honey, rasta business, the Heathen, Children off the Ghetto…) simple but are played with an absolute precision in order to maintain rhythmic marked through the agreements. The agreements are quite distinct, with a rather great amplitude in the notes chosen, the very low frequencies being distinguishable with more difficulty by l' human ear. Coppers: dominating during the ska, almost absent from the rocksteady, they take again place with the reggae. They mark sometimes the skank (ex: They don' T Know Jah of Wailing Drunk persons) but replace l' rather; space occupied by l' organ with the beginning of the year seventy: intro and refrain. The most famous rate/rhythm is undoubtedly that of Satta of Abyssinians.
The history of reggae is inseparable from that of sound systems. Often linked to the Phonographic Industry and local sono comparable to a mobile sound-system refers to both the material used, the team behind it and the evening itself.
Any music produced in Jamaica broadcasts in sound-system and disc jockeys (DJ) liven up the dances since the early 1950. For economic reasons these evenings, which broadcast the prerecorded music, replace orchestras. The DJ will practise Toasting (Toaster = bonimenteur) to introduce the pieces. Here you will find the roots of Rap. The sound systems are large festive gatherings, outdoor which attract a large section of the Jamaican population, especially in poor neighbourhoods of Kingston, the capital.
These include the most famous sound systems those of Sir Coxsone Dodd (Studio One) and Duke Reid 'The Trojan' which have long clashed before mounting their own studio, respectively Studio One and Treasure Roanne.
The evolution of reggae
Since its birth, Jamaica, reggae is changing:
* 1968 - 1970: the early reggae: fast tempo, due to the influences of local mento still very rhythmic, predominance of the bass
* 1970 - 1976: The one-drop: medium tempo, slower pace, battery on the 3rd time
* 1977 - 1980: the rockers sometimes declined stepper with 4-stroke hit the drums, adding tone.
* 1981: the early dancehall or rub-a-dub: slow tempo, predominance of the bass and drums
* 1985: the early digital: rhythmic fast, composed entirely on drum
It is from 1973, with the success of Bob Marley & The Wailers and other groups as the Gladiators and Black Uhuru as reggae took an international dimension. Therefore, it may not only continue to evolve in Jamaica, but also resume its miscegenation throughout the world.
On seeing the first sound system in 1940: a sound system embedded in a truck, making a tour of Jamaica. A sound system consists of a selecter: programmer who chooses the music to move, and the toaster (a term which will disappear in circles electro / techno to become a DJ) that animates the comments and selecter session of the microphone. The first sound systems are very rudimentary: a platinum (running hard), an amplifier and two speakers. Tom Wong, aka Tom the Great Sebastian, Jamaica of Chinese origin will be the first to move the streets of Kingston in the early 1950. Another well-known sound system is that of Seymor Clement Dodd, aka "Sir Coxsone Downbeat", it goes up in full ghetto of Kingston. It urges "Count Matchuki" (forerunner of rap and beatboxing) as a toaster. The mid-sound system is very rude, and fierce competition often sends men ransack the hands of sound "enemy": on the hard disk labels, destroyed equipment, etc. (which is why, for example, that will engage Coxsone Prince Buster, amateur boxer, who also save Lee Scratch Perry). Towards the end of 1950, the current declines in the U.S. and selecter have great difficulty in obtaining a disc. They then turn to the record industry locally. It was at that moment Coxsone created his own label: the Studio One.
Encouraging the crowd or commenting on the daily in the sounds, toasters use an original phrasing sometimes close to the psalmodie between talking and singing melodic. Among the first to launch the genre: Count Matchuki, Sir Lord Comic, King Stitt, followed by the famous U Roy. This practice, "talk over" is at the root of rap.
The sound systems that are more present today, and there listening all styles: Dub, Dancehall, Roots, Nu roots, UK style, Rub-a-Dub, and so on. Some sound systems known internationally: Aba Shanti I, King Earthquake, King Shiloh, Tubbys Jah, Jah Shaka, Stone Love, Killamandjaro, Addies ... Some sound systems known at the national level: Heartical sound, Stereo Soul, Guiding Star, Love Corner Krew, Irie Crew, Irie Ites sound system, Zion Gate Hi Fi, Lion Roots, Black Board Jungle, Lions Sound, Jah Call ....
From the Reggae instrumental dub
The music is derived from dub reggae. In the early 1970s, sound engineers King Tubby and Errol Thompson deepen research invention of Augustus Pablo in the field of instrumental reggae. This is to do a job pieces on the side A of vinyl, and that one square in front B. The side A is the original piece and the B side dub version. The style is characterized by its then rhythmic emphasis, cumbersome and skinned, low and very present a skeletal melody. It adds effects such as echo, reverberation that enable toasters (disc jockey reggae) to develop their improvisations in the sound-systems.
The Jamaican influence is reflected in the 1980's by English Sounds Systems (Aba Shanti I for example), which added a good dose of electronic instruments and the predominance of Steppah (bass and bass drum on each time). This current then develops in Europe (France, Germany, Austria) then detaches from the reggae movement to become a fully fledged style.
The dub poetry is the adaptation of its kind "spoken word" to the music reggae / dub. The "dub poet" psalmodie its texts matching his phrasing on the rhythmic qu'interprètent musicians who accompany (He does not sing but raised his poetry on rhythmic reggae / dub). Initialized by Prince Far I, Michael Smith, Sister Breeze, Oku Onuara ... It is with Linton Kwesi Johnson that the movement finds its true representative.
The "dub poetry" takes themes and claims of Rastas but looks closer to the artistic act, the political and social commitment against racism, imperialism, economic problems ...
She managed to establish itself in the cultural and intellectual circles and helps raise the level of reggae and Jamaican culture. Artists such as Benjamin Zephaniah and The Last Poets participate in the evolution of style in orienting to the Hip Hop and Electro.
The name, born in London in mid 1970, defines a mild reggae, at a rate less marked, which speaks of love and emotional situations and it opposes to the reggae roots. It has become synonymous with the reggae "romantic" Jamaican whose figures are the most representative Gregory Isaacs, John Holt, Dennis Brown and Freddie McGregor. This style has persisted in Jamaica in the 1980's with Sugar Minott, Cocoa Tea or Frankie Paul, then in the years 1990 with Beres Hammond, Sanchez, Jack Radics, Glen Washington, George Nooks, Richie Stephens, Wayne Wonder, and during the first years of his career, Luciano. It also remained quite popular in England, where even groups "reggae roots" as Aswad or Matumbi them are addicted. Artists British rock lover's current Don Campbell, Peter Huningal, Nereus Joseph and Peter Spence. In particular, he raised many women's careers of artists such Carol Thompson, Louisa Marks and Janet Kay.
The early reggae, rocksteady stands out by a faster tempo, a skank on the organ often doubled and influence in the game funk bass while the battery marked the third time a measure of four-stroke, how of rocksteady (in the ska, it was the second and fourth time). This style was also influenced by the traditional mento, influence that can be found in the skank split and some bass lines that can be closer to the game of a rumba box. This reggae, very nervous and led by the play of the organist, had much success in England with skinheads English, to the point where it sometimes took the name of skinhead reggae.
The skinhead reggae itself was born in the years 1969-70 in England, following the mixture of mods and rudies Jamaican reggae fans, giving birth to skinheads which they passed the taste of this music: groups have then play this specific style to meet their expectations. The main artists from emigration Caribbean (Jamaica, Barbados, British Guiana…) who were referring to the skinheads were Laurel Aitken, Dandy, Derrick Morgan, Symarip / The Pyramids, The Rudies, Hot Rod Allstars (The Cimarons), The Pioneers ... and producers Joe Mansano, Lambert Briscoe, Webster, Shrowder and Desmond Bryan.
(or "new roots" or "dancehall roots")
The year 1995 marks the beginning of the wave "new-roots" initiated last year by the death of the great singer Garnett Silk (December 9, 1994) and the conversion of a rasta time deejay Buju Banton and enduring as well as poorly until today. In terms of texts, the "new roots" also called "dancehall roots" means the return of ddelw conscious and "cultural" (less present since the second half of 1980 where the most put forward often dealt so ambiguous firearms or sex) in the reggae of Jamaica, under the renewed influence rasta.
In terms of musical texture, the new-roots leads to the return of reggae at least digital sound even more and more "noise". Most of the time, the sound remains semi-digital as the backbone of "riddims" (bass drum skank) remains generally performed using synth / drum machines while have been added around the instruments non - digital more traditional (brass, guitar, piano, Hammond organ).
The labels flagship of the new wave roots of 1995 are X-terminator (Phillip "Fattis" Burrell), Digital B (Bobby "Digital" Dixon), Penthouse (Donovan Germain), Startrail (Richard "Bello" Bell), followed by Following a lower level, X-rated (Barry O'Hare), Kariang (Jah Mike), Black Scorpio (Jack Scorpio), Kings Of Kings (Colin "Iley Dread" Levy) and Fateyes (Fatta Marshall & Bulby York).
But this wave very influential in Jamaica until 1998 then replaced by a return of hardcore dancehall, dancehall bogle (known as more and more dancehall any court) until 2004, when it resumes to discuss new roots to appoint a new return to a more classic reggae rhythm. This new cycle of Jamaican music also takes the name of "one drop", a term that referred to the original roots reggae rhythm the more "traditional" (the other being the flying cymbal, the rockers and rub-a-dub ) But which becomes increasingly synonymous with a rhythmic roots reggae whatsoever.
Recently, one drop reggae to the former resumed his duties in Jamaica [ref. necessary]. at the expense of a dancehall who reigned supreme over the past ten years. Increasingly influenced by American hip-hop, the musical genre peinait to renew itself. It does not need more so steeped some young talent, so-called "new guard", swallowed up in the gap. A gap opened in 2002 by Warrior King and his tube Virtuous Woman, his first real success. This song has captivated the public of Jamaica not only for its quality and innovative side, but also for the beautiful story she told autobiographical. Indeed, this song was aimed at his ex-girlfriend who, in the hearing on the radio, decided to return with him, charmée by this evidence of love. The yardies, fond of fairy tales, have literally hung. S'ensuivit the aptly named album Breath of Fresh Air, a success esteem as much as commercial.
Then, in 2003-2004, c'est tout a generation that emerged of the iceberg reggae, renamed once again new roots for the occasion. This was first Richie Spice, the youngest of the family Banner, who is already singers Pliers and Spanner Banner, which scora three issues a hit consecutive singles. In order: Earth Rune A Red, Marijuana and Folly Living. It has since become the icon of reggae and renewal of his album Spice In Your Life is already in the pantheon of modern Jamaican music. At his side, the Fifth Element label, production team / management also supports other fashionable artists as Chuck Fender and Anthony Cruz.
Then there was Chezidek and Leave The Trees, Pierpoljak and its "I am c'que j'veux", "Stim turban" and "Tuff Gong Blues", Natty King with its No Guns To Town and Mr. Greedy, Fantan Mojah with Hail The King and Hungry Days, Mr. Perfect with Handcart Boy. By the way, the latter has a history similar to Warrior King. His song tells the story from his own life, namely that of a poor rasta cart pusher in love with a beautiful girl from a good family, which still manages to seduce. Finally, Gyptian has been a great success with his song Serious Times on a pace nyabinghi-FM.
But the leader of this new movement reggae, Jah Cure, lived a less beautiful story: he made a stay in prison for a contested case of rape from 1999 to 2007. It has just been released on parole on July 28 and continues to proclaim his innocence and has never acknowledged the facts. Three days after his release, he released his fourth album entitled True Reflections ... A New Beginning (Des deep thoughts ... A new beginning), he could register in his cell.
Since then, it gave ideas and even some dancehall artists put themselves at one drop, including the Wild Elephant Man who suddenly starts to sing Rastafarian.
For the leagues of dancehall and its frequent glorification of guns and large cars, one drop reggae is constantly changing in a positive and constructive atmosphere. The songs often have as its theme the call to love, the condemnation of violence, praised the weed (grass) and the denunciation of corruption almost traditional.
Even if they arise from the same causes, there are differences between the wave bare roots in 2004 and 1995: - That of 1995 based on labels rather old and very powerful, who formed genuine artistic families with their artists (X - terminator, Startrail) each and imposed a particular sound (the famous sons or Penthouse Digital B). By contrast, that of 2004-2005 is more based on a new generation of artists. The labels "dominant" (there is not really, apart from Downsound) are more modest, although less powerful and less charismatic level productions (there really does not recognize these labels to their son, to share can be Don Corleon those whose naked roots riddims easily affordable are all based on roughly the same rhythm). -- The family aspect put forward in 2004 has disappeared (hotel Chuck Fender and Anthony Cruz of the Fifth Element, Junior Kelly of Downsound, Luciano from X-Terminator). -- The sound is more acoustic in 2004, while he remained fairly digital in 1995. In addition, it is also much lighter (sometimes placed low down in the mix) and "lover's" (riddim "Cry Baby" by Christopher Birch) that the sound of heavy 1995. -- The bare-roots reggae is not exclusively Jamaica. Whether Groundation for the United States, Gentleman and seeed for Germany or Rascal The Reggae Riddim for France on nu-roots (and reggae in general) is now a music played and heard over the entire planet.
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