The disc jockey (often abbreviated as DJ, delivered didjay) east Originally, a person who selects and distributes music to an audience, whether for a radio broadcast, in a discotheque or the During a night.
In its most common activity, the disc jockey selects and passes discs on its decks (vinyl or CD, sometimes MP3, Wma). There is this trade mainly in nightclubs, but sometimes also in some bars and the techno music festivals or raves.
It may simply move the music one after the other depending on the desires of listeners or modify or superimpose two music, or music and an a cappella version, and show creativity and inventiveness, even using equipment special or computers to recast the entire piece used.
Since then, the role of disc jockey has gained momentum in recent popular music. It is sometimes recognized as a full-fledged musician. The DJ can sometimes produce an original work from existing materials music, it plays a role of "discoverer" of securities gone unnoticed or forgotten, is that it combines talent with minor works. It may be considered while rapproprie the work of other musicians, operating a sound material that it would be unable to establish itself.
In the reggae
The original term of Deejay means the person holding the microphone and intervenes directly on the instrumental version of a disc (often face B), in the Jamaican sound systems. The reggae deejay is a vocal artist as the singer. His vocal style is a mixture of voice / scandée / sung and it foreshadows that of a rapper.
Having emerged in the 1950s (the deejays were satisfied then slipping short interjections in music), they were recognized from the late 1960's as artists in its own voice (with full chorus and verses sung on an instrumental version) tied with singers and became hegemonic in reggae (today, roughly 70% of the voice of reggae artists are deejays), and we even saw the emergence of singjay (mixture deejay style and pure singing) during 1970.
The term was later included in the Hip Hop culture to become a DJ or Disc Jockey. The link between reggae and hip hop was through DJ Kool Herc, a Jamaican who emigrated to the USA and pioneer of Hip Hop.
From disco to hip-hop
In the late 1960, a combination of factors both musical and social and technical (evolution of rock to a less dancing style, development of a more soul music dancing and improved sound systems, freeing of morals, need for recognition of certain minorities) lead to development USA a mode of exit (disco) and a style of music that is ultimately appointed disco.
The job of changing DJ then in the places to go out with music (bars, clubs) where the DJ gradually exclude the real musicians primarily because cheaper and considered less capricious because they do manage to dance the public on a more intense than the orchestrated music. Gradually, simple sequences of securities become a coherent whole that accompanies the dancers.
The DJ will be at the centre of movement until, in the late 1970's, houses and drive the evolution of society take responsibility is to exploit the seam disco then reject once exhausted or Judging such empty and decadent.
However, clubs in black neighborhoods of New York, where it plays out and changing the disco, DJ watch the dancers and find that some of them unleashed a solo when the title marks a break. From this observation was born on break dance, which will give birth to hip hop, whose idea comes from personalities like DJ Kool Herc, by linking the breaks of several pieces, managed to prolong the duration of rhythmic cuts.
Before that can be duplicated by recording the rehearsal, technical requested the disc jockey to complete this exercise has increased. Gradually, with artists like Grandmaster Flash, djing then takes a new meaning which expresses the idea that the DJ produces sound from an instrument, the disc through a whole series of new techniques that require extreme dexterity . The DJ passes and the role of breeder than artist.
In the music of hip hop, the disc jockey can sometimes be accompanied by an MC (Master of Ceremony, "rapper"). The disc jockey "Scratch", ie to change speed and direction of reading the turntables, he "rubbed" the path of the disc under the playhead to distort and rhythm to the sounds of existing ones. This distortion sound is associated with the use in the mixer (central element), a fader or crossfader. This item is used to move the sound of a turntable to another and to mute one of the two decks. There are various techniques scratch, as Cutting, Transforming, or the Flare, which can be combined and shifts.
The emergence of DJ-ing
The DJ-ing was born in the Bronx, through culture Zulu Nation in the early 1980. Kool Herc was the first DJ who really mixa two discs together for the first time, with two discs settled on exactly the same BPM (Beat Per Minute or tempo) and stacked so that a chain on the same basic rhythm (not the pace unchanged, but the piece of music change). Then followed the scratch, invented by DJ Grandwizard Theodore and popularized by Grand Mixer DXT and Herbie Hancock in the title Rock it. Since then, DJs have continued to create new techniques of handling disks and mixers.
The most recent is the Beat Juggling or pass-pass (juggling rhythms). This technique allows two discs identical to recreate a different version of the original simultaneously manipulating them by cutting and rearrangement to form loops and new musical phases.
DJ Babu was the first to use the word Turntablism to describe his art. The use of this term will have a great resonance in the world of DJ-ing.
The musical practices of the DJ
* Scratch: use of a fade or Crossfader to cut the sound recorded on vinyl, so as to transform it and make it more rhythmic and / or incisive.
* Dissolve the end of a piece of music is mixed with the beginning of the next track to ensure a smooth transition.
o Timing tempo: the rhythm of the two disks are stacked to adopt the same tempo / BPM.
* The mix: disks are synchronized manually with the speed settings of turntables and are mixed with various variations, including the equalizations (level of frequencies, medium and acute), and the use of Faders and Crossfaders.
The disks are chained in several ways:
* Either scratchant (mainly used in Hip-Hop and Rap);
* Either by mixing (mixing) gradually the two titles: then it is called a fade-chained (fade or crossfading);
* Either by mixing (mixing) gradually the two titles, and fitting the tempo of the first track (by adjusting its speed, it also speaks pitch), one speaks of a mix in the tempo (beatmix).
* Is acting as the second just after the first (a cut), in fact, the first beat second title (the first beat) is played at the same time that the last beat of the first.
Some musicians say they also DJ because they use the same tools, although this is not in order to move pieces, but to create new ones from elements of several musical materials as principle of sampling.
The DJ-ing is not always direct, or face an audience. For example, some DJ use software as Ejay or Rave Music for amateurs. Some houses discs not publish anything else that achievements in studio DJ. There is also a world championship DJs, who meet in different types of categories.
The concept of DJ-ing also applies to video. The "VJ" (visual jockey or video jockey) goes and superimposes of still and moving images that can be projected onto a screen during evenings or concerts, but also on television musical. The term has been extended to single presenter emissions such channels because it is supposed to choose video clips that pass. In the same way we talk about KJ (KaraJockey) for the hosts karaoke.
Support music and DJing
If historically vinyl was the first DJ support (for the scratch), they are well and truly DJs that have enabled the vinyl to resist the impact has been the arrival of the CD in the years 1980.
The reason for this resistance is the long absence of platinum CD adjustable speed as a prerequisite to mix a disco. As a result in 30 years, the Technics 1200 MKII then became a turntable remained the most popular in clubs.
Currently labels emerging new format vinyl to DJs that play these pieces together and make it possible to assess their potential.
The pressing larger number can then follow, and by the success of the song could then find it in compilations on CD albums or artists correspondents (if it is sufficiently productive).
Today, many DJ mix still on vinyl, but the digital format is currently causing a real revolution in this world. Indeed, even if it is considered that mixer on vinyl is more enjoyable by touching it brings, we must also think that a vinyl generally does not contain a single title. So for a DJ who travels a lot, it is unimaginable to carry too many discs (especially for a weight problem). The arrival of new CD (as the Pioneer CDJ 1000) made it possible to address this problem by proposing for example reading CD in MP3 format that can carry thousands of titles in a single file to CD. In addition, CD current offer many functions that can not be added to the turntables as loops or cue points, memorable on a memory card (SD card type) that the DJ can bring with him in various places where it mixes and return benchmarks prepared in advance at him.
In the last decade, technological advances have revolutionized the world of djing; one hand because of programs that allow, from a computer and two turntables, reproduce the mix on vinyl while using MP3 content in the computer on the other hand, thanks to programmes such qu'Ableton to play loops to live. It should be noted that more and more use of dj effects in their sets, but mainly James Zabiela which has allowed this new revolution with its cooperation with Pioneer in the development of EFX1000.
The basic equipment disc jockey
* Platinums vinyl turntables or CD
* Helmet preview
* Microphone (optional)
Can be found in the vocabulary of DJ a number of technical terms:
* BPM: Beat per minute (measuring the "speed" of a piece)
* Bracing tempo (or beatmatching): synchronization of two pieces ryhmes
* Cell: playhead a turntable
* Cross-fader: fader placed horizontally on a mixer to switch from one track to another (curve melted may be linear, exponential, all or nothing and / or adjustable depending on model). Facilitates the crossfade.
* CUE: starting point for playback on a CD player. Maybe the beginning of the song or any point of the song on predefined platinum cd.
* Fader: button to slide to change the volume of a track (also called linear potentiometer).
* Felt: so carpet interposed between the vinyl and the plateau of platinum to drag the vinyl without damage. As to Break, a DJ playing on vinyl rarely uses the key Play / Stop. To stop a piece ... he asks his fingers on the disc, which must therefore be able to drag on or felt slipmat). It can then launch (throwing) in the rhythm.
* Loop: loop composed of a sound point of entry (loop-in) and a point of exit (loop-out)
* Pitch: mechanism (knob or button) of a platinum (vinyl or CD) can change the reading speed (expressed as a percentage change compared to the original). Its setting is used to synchronize the beats of two pieces (and outgoing).
* Mashup or versus: remix mixing a cappella version of a song with the instrumental of another
* White label: vinyl does not label: it is generally a piece produced by a little-known DJ, and pressed a small number of copies. Example: in the case of a future bomb dancefloor, it helps to evaluate the potential of the club skeud (CD) before pressing under a true label. Most bootlegs are pressed white.
* Sample: french sample. The sample is a short excerpt or part of a piece of music played in a loop or intermittently. It can be deformed to achieve the desired effect.
The pronunciation of "DJ" can be problematic (do not pronounce diji or didji, but rather deejay, didjai or didjette for girls) as the spelling of the associated technical (DJ-ing, dJing, deejaying, deejing, DJaying, etc.).. Like all acronyms in french, DJ is invariable, does not mark the plural (unlike the use Anglo-Saxon) and is written in capital letters with no abbreviations.
The pronunciation remains the most experienced / Sun: djei /
In Côte d'Ivoire, "DJ" can be placed in front as behind the name, such as in the case of Dj Mareshal, also known as DJ Mareshal.
Read also Hip Hop