John Ono Lennon, John Winston Lennon was born on October 9, 1940 in Liverpool and death murdered on December 8, 1980 in New York, is an author, composer, guitarist, pianist and singer, founder of The Beatles, the group flagship 1960s and Culture pop / rock, which he left in September 1969. After the end of the group, he devoted himself to various actions for peace with his companion Yoko Ono and registering several solo albums, including the famous Imagine. Both his son, Julian and Sean Lennon are also musicians and singers.
Nearly thirty years after his death, he embodies the deep commitment and marking of the peace movement Peace and Love 1970s, and a rally in his memory continues to take place in New York each December 8.
Childhood and adolescence (1940-1957)
John Lennon was born on October 9, 1940 the maternity Oxford Street, Liverpool, during a raid of the German Air in the midst of the Blitz. His father, Alfred "Freddie" Lennon, is marine and family left the house frequently and then finally in 1945. It no longer sees his son until the beatlemania. His parents had separated quickly, John part live in Woolton, another district of Liverpool, with his aunt and his uncle. He spends the rest of his childhood.
During his childhood, John is a very curious child and gifted for literature. It invents songs from nursery rhymes that she learns at school. It creates a universe close to his favorite novel, Alice in Wonderland. Soon, it is nevertheless also a child humour exacerbated the stroke of a pen sharpened and analysis fine.
Her mother, Julia Stanley, reappears at the time of his adolescence to disappear permanently on July 15, 1958, reversed the car by a drunken policeman. It was under his leadership that during this short period when he sees from time to time, he started playing the banjo and ukulélé. The death of his mother plunged into a silence in a clear and irony which will become his "trademark". It then becomes Teddy Boy, wearing leather jackets, a sort of local rebels, known by all to Liverpool and little recommendable. It will never this disappearance, he dedicated several songs: Julia in 1968 and Mother in 1970, where he literally screams his sadness (these cries are part of an exercise therapy, invented by Dr. Arthur Janov, well vogue at the time entitled primal scream).
The genesis of the Beatles
Yet John Lennon attending the Art College in Liverpool, binding friendship with artists like Stuart Sutcliffe. At the same time, he began to play skiffle in small parish feasts. Inspired by the rock and its idols Buddy Holly, Chuck Berry and Elvis Presley, he founded a group, the Quarrymen, with Pete Shotton, Nigel Walley and Ivan Vaughan. It is the latter which, on July 6, 1957, introduced by John Paul McCartney is the meeting of two talents who are therefore constantly mutual emulation. Another strong point in common between the two young men is that they will meet every two orphans the following year.
John Lennon has an authority over the four members, because of its age and its excesses. The look of Lennon at the time was heavily influenced by Elvis Presley and Marlon Brando. He also called his group the Silver Beetles by referring to the film The Fitted wild, and then the Beatles, the second E diminishing A on an idea of Lennon, in reference to the Beat Generation. It is very influenced by the directory rock and roll at the time, and his game is very aggressive. The success from the group left Liverpool and made his arms in boxes of red-light district of Hamburg, Germany. John, full of pranks during his concerts ( "My name is John, I play the guitar. Sometimes I play the fool too." - "My name is John, I play the guitar. Sometimes I play the andouilles too. "), Becomes the" outraged "by the band.
In 1962, John married Cynthia Powell, met at the Art College (School of Art) in 1958 and with whom he has a son, Julian, born April 8, 1963.
John Lennon has imposed for the "escape" German his best friend Stuart Sutcliffe. Although very talented painter, Stuart is a poor bassist. Sutcliffe left the band to live his love affair with Astrid Kirchherr, author of the first official photographs of the Beatles. John Lennon is living a second tragedy when Stuart died of a brain tumor shortly thereafter.
At first, John is the main singer of the group. His songs are often funny or pessimistic (There's a Place, If I Fell, I'm a Loser, an exception being happy I Feel Fine) as opposed to those most rieuses, but not always, Paul McCartney, who " brilliant second "John, is gradually becoming the dominant figure harmonic group. The opposition erupted in 1965, during the preparation of 45 laps including We Can Work It Out (McCartney) and Day Tripper (Lennon). Both singers think his song is much better than others and therefore deserves the side A, which passes on the radio. Unable to reach agreement for the first time, a fate 45 laps with two faces A and hit parades weekly spend one and the other, alternating each week.
Bob Dylan recognizes John Lennon talent as a writer. This recognition will rise to a respect and an exchange between two icons of pop. For the Beatles, mainly Lennon, become icons. He lives very badly this madness around them and took refuge in sarcasm and food (he speaks period "big Elvis" in an interview with Rolling Stone magazine). In this period, where he is loath himself, born song Help!, A real cry for help launched the world. However, the film shows a namesake of John Lennon body perfectly normal.
"We are more popular than Jesus now"
After writing A Spaniard in the Works in March 1966, five months before the third American tour summer (the first two took place in 1964 and 1965), John Lennon gave an interview to Maureen Cleave, a journalist friend. It runs: "Christianity will disappear. It will evaporate, shrink. I do not have to discuss it. I have reason, it is proved that I am right. We are more popular than Jesus now. I do not know what will disappear first, the rock'n'roll or Christianity ... " As soon distorted reduced, these words cause a wave of hatred, part of southern USA, against the group and Lennon in particular. This period also marks the final concerts of the Beatles, who no longer know how to reconcile the musical innovations and crowds hysterical.
Lennon also runs a film called How I Won the War. His sense of irony and nonsense a hit, although it did not take the leading role. During the filming of this film by Richard Lester, in Almeria in Andalusia, Lennon composed one of its flagship titles, Strawberry Fields Forever.
The breakup of the group
Lennon goes further and plunges into the psychedelic, a major reinforcement of drugs and sounds complex. It is increasingly seeking inner peace, and after a time the precepts of a guru in India, he turns to an avant-garde artist Japanese he encountered at an art exhibition , Yoko Ono. Her love life is a long history. His divorce is primarily a result of this liaison with Yoko Ono, who was to become his second wife and has a great influence on the result of his career (it will be criticized, being held responsible for the separation of by many Beatles fans ).
His compositions are ambitious and very dense (Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds, All You Need Is Love, I Am the Walrus, A Day in the Life, Strawberry Fields Forever). However, the presence of Yoko Ono during the recording sessions is causing resentment and animosity. All this leads to the White Album which enshrines the breakup of the Beatles, everyone, it was argued, would serve other than studio musician. Abbey Road will be their last real job of common harmony, as Let It Be will be published more than a year after its registration, through the work of editing and mixing of Phil Spector. The same year, by the way, the solo CD by Paul, where he plays alone all the instruments by re-recording, is already out, quickly followed by the triple album All Things Must Pass by George Harrison. It is in fact John Lennon who terminates the Beatles, their announcing his final departure in September 1969 shortly after the sessions enregitrement disc Abbey Road. The news is the first time in a secret place, considering many commercial imperatives, and that is that Paul McCartney will formalize the separation seven months later, in April 1970. "I founded the Beatles and I have dissolved, it's that simple" said then John Lennon.
Solo career (1968-1980)
After the separation of the Beatles, John is dedicated to his companion, the movement Fluxus artist Yoko Ono, and his family. His solo career sawtooth - because music is his sole concern - is still rich and fruitful. Throughout the decade 1970, J. Lennon oscillates between several styles, adopting a look always different: a real hippie, a peace activist, rocker, a follower of meditation, and so on.
In early 1970, it will be the provocation, the Plastic Ono Band with bassist Klaus Voormann, beatings media, sentences against murderous Paul McCartney, songs and committed pacifists and especially the battle of Yoko Ono for him to exorcise a its old demons: the death of his mother. He became the embodiment of the activism of his generation and uses its reputation in many happenings for Peace (Give Peace a Chance). He is the famous Imagine, the accents universal, one of the most popular songs ever written.
In the summer of 1973, away from John and Yoko moved to Los Angeles with May Pang, his young assistant and a new companion. This will be his rocker back to the sources (J. Lennon spoke of a "lost weekend" or "lost weekend"). With producer Phil Spector he recorded among others: Walls and Bridges, and then the album Rock'n Roll, consisting of occasions classic rock'n'roll as Be-Bop-A-Lula or Peggy Sue.
In early 1975, J. Lennon returned in the arms of Yoko Ono. On 9 October 1975, the day of the 35th anniversary of John, was born his second son, Sean. Lennon then withdrew from the public arena and music to devote himself to his son.
He is a man reconciled with itself and income from the horrors of the surnotoriété who signs the album Double Fantasy in November 1980. An album full of freshness and tenderness, with titles sung alternately by Yoko and John. He died assassinated in New York on December 8, 1980 at 22h52, after an evening of studio work and then he joined his apartment in the Dakota Building near Central Park. Under the eyes of Yoko, Mark David Chapman, a deeply religious man, but completely unbalanced, lampshades five balls revolver (size 38). A few hours earlier, Lennon had given him an autograph.
The reasons for the murder remain unclear. Some see the sense of betrayal allegedly tested Chapman, accusing his idol for not having kept its promises of peace and equality of wealth he communicated in his songs. Others are more inclined to think about a conspiracy by the U.S. government, because John Lennon campaigned for peace, and had openly criticized the armed struggle between the USA and Vietnam.
Although John Lennon is primarily known as singer-songwriter, the vision he showed the world - although at the time, it could still shock - its openness and its emphasis on issues Peace and love have helped make him a popular icon.
In his song God, John explains that God is a concept that man was created to bear its own suffering, or to acquire an additional force that will help the believer to survive. He recalls a vision expressed by many writers (Sade, Marx, Nietzsche, ...) whose general American public does not necessarily much more than names. In addition, he explains his dream ( "you may say I'm a dreamer") of a world without war, without religion, without suffering where all human beings could live in love, peace and unity.
In everyday life, man will not always demonstrated an Olympian detachment as if one of his photos where he pastiche the cover of Ram, his former friend Paul McCartney may be regarded as a simple gag, the words of the song How Do You Sleep is very hard towards the latter: "Those freaks was right when they said you was dead."
His album with Elephant's Memory, Some Time in New York City, where each song is almost demands, will not have a success comparable to those that had preceded it.
Read also Yoko Ono