William Shakespeare (probably born on April 23, 1564, baptized April 26, 1564, died April 23 1616 is widely regarded as the greatest poet, playwright and writer of the Anglo-Saxon culture. It is known for his mastery of poetic and literary forms, its ability to represent aspects of human nature is often put forward by its fans.
Character prominent Western culture, Shakespeare continues to influence artists today. It is translated into many languages and his plays are regularly performed throughout the world. Shakespeare is one of the few playwrights to have practiced both comedy that the tragedy. It is also extremely rare to see a writer of the sixteenth century whose texts can give, in our modern era of blockbusters.
Shakespeare wrote thirty-seven dramatic years between 1580 and 1613. But the exact chronology of his plays is still subject to discussion. However, the volume of his creations should not be seen as exceptional in terms of standards of the time.
It is a measure of the influence of Shakespeare on the Anglo-Saxon culture by observing the numerous references made to it, whether through citations, titles of works or the countless adaptations of his work. Do not say it in English is "the language of Shakespeare" in the same manner as that on the french said he is "the language of Moliere," the German it is " the language of Goethe, "the Spanish it is" the language of Cervantes ", Italian it is" the language of Dante and Persian it is "the language of Ferdowsi?
Most experts agree that there is now sufficient evidence for historical define in detail the life of Shakespeare. These "tracks" are formed mainly by official documents, and provide a very limited life of the playwright. Although some researchers have attempted to speculate on certain facts and anecdotes, trying to distinguish in his works reflections of his inner life, we must resolve to the idea that we are not aware of the character insignificant details, or almost. Some researchers have even claimed that he did not exist or that this was not his real name. Name borrowed or not, it remains one of the greatest authors of theatrical history.
William Shakespeare probably born on April 23, 1564 in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire (centre), England. His father, John Shakespeare, was a gantier leather merchant and prosperous in addition to being a man of a certain position in the town of Stratford: in 1565 there had been elected municipal councillor, then great bailiff (or mayor ) In 1568. In 1557, he married Mary Arden, a bourgeois, and both lived in a house on Henley Street.
The act of baptism of young William is dated April 26, 1564: on baptized infants in the few days following their birth, and by tradition, there is a mention on April 23 as date of birth of the playwright . This allows also to sketch a strange symmetry since died the same day in 1616. Furthermore, it is quite appropriate that the birth of the greatest English playwright coincides with the feast of Saint George, the patron saint of England.
The comfortable environment in which Shakespeare was born led likely to attend, after the elementary level, high school King Edward VI "in the centre of Stratford, where instruction included an intensive learning the language and literature Latin, and that's history, logic and rhetoric. Even if the registration records have not survived, it is in the sense that Shakespeare has attended this institution. Nor has there been any evidence to demonstrate a continued education beyond high school.
On 28 November 1582, Temple Grafton near Stratford, Shakespeare married Anne Hathaway, 8 years older. Two neighbours of the bride, Fulk Sandalls and John Richardson published the banns of marriage, to signify that the union have not encountered opposition. However, it appears that the ceremony had been arranged hastily: Anne was three months pregnant. After her marriage, Shakespeare leaves few traces in historical records, before reappearing on the London art scene.
The following year 1580 is therefore known as the era of "lost years" of the playwright's life: we have no evidence to explain the life of the writer during this time, and we can not explain why He left Stratford to London. A legend, now fallen into disrepute, says he had been taken in the process of poaching in the park of Sir Thomas Lucy, a local justice of the peace, and therefore had fled to escape prosecution. One other theory suggests it would have joined the troupe of Lord Chamberlain while actors were on a Stratford stage of their tour. The seventeenth-century biographer John Aubrey reported the testimony of an actor's troupe Shakespeare, telling he would have spent a few years as qu'instituteur.
It is known by cons, May 26, 1583, Susanna, the first child of Shakespeare, is named in Stratford. The twins, Hamnet and Judith, are baptized some time later, on February 2, 1585. Hamnet, his only son, knows very young a disastrous fate, since died a few years later: it was buried on August 11, 1596. Many suggest that his death inspired the playwright tragedy Hamlet (ca. 1601), a story built according to several influences, including a piece Danish (not found) Hamlet, or Thomas Kyd.
London and the theatre
In 1592, the trace of Shakespeare reappears in London, where he is registered as an actor and playwright. At this stage, it already has enough reputation for being openly criticised by Robert Greene, who speaks of him as a "raven arrogant, embellished by our feathers," whose heart of tigre is hidden by the mask of the actor ", And that assumes he is capable of swallowing a verse as well as the best of you: in addition to being a miserable scribouillard he depicts in his dramatic vanity. "- Greene, in his pamphlet, is here referring to Henry VI, Part 3, echoing the verse:" Oh, heart of tigre hidden in the womb of a woman. "
It can therefore speculate he had to be on the London scene for some time, and experts believe he left Stratford to 1587.
Shakespeare became an actor, writer and eventually a member theatre company, known as "The Lord Chamberlain's Men" troupe for which he wrote exclusively since 1594. The company takes its name, wanted the time, the patron aristocrat who supports the troupe (Lord Chamberlain was a minister responsible for royal entertainment. This title has long designated the main function of the censor British art scene). In addition to playing himself in his own works, we know for example that interprets the spectrum of the father in Hamlet and Adam in As You Like It, it also appears to top the bill of pieces of Ben Jonson: in 1598 Each a man in his character (Every Man in His Humour) and in 1603 in Sejanus. The company became very popular after the death of Elizabeth I and the coronation of King Jacques I (1603), the new monarch adopted the troupe, which now bears the name of "Men of the King" (King's Men). The troupe eventually become a resident of the Globe Theatre, whose exact replica is again operating in London.
In 1604, Shakespeare plays a role entremetteur for marriage of the daughter of the owner. The court documents in 1612, when the case is brought to court, show that in 1604, Shakespeare is a tenant in a Huguenot craftsman who makes diadems in the north-west London, a certain Christopher Mountjoy (Montjoie). The apprentice Montjoie, Stephen Belott wanted to marry the daughter of his boss; Shakespeare becomes the entremetteur attitré, to help negotiate the details of dowry. On its own promises, marriage takes place. But eight years later, Belott continues his stepfather for having paid part of the dowry. Shakespeare is called to testify, but does not remember very vaguely of the case.
Later, various documents from the courts or business records show that Shakespeare has become rich enough to buy a property in the district of London Blackfriars (south shore of the Thames, the theatre (and prisons!). At that time, he also owns a large property in Stratford.
Retirement and end of life
Around 1611, Shakespeare decides to retire, which turned out to the less turbulent: he was involved in legal trouble about land he owned. At the time, land closed allowed grazing sheep, but denied the same time the poor of valuable resources. For many, the position very clear that Shakespeare adopted during the case was disappointing because it aimed to protect its own interests in defiance of the needy.
During the last weeks of his life, the son-in-law sensed his daughter Judith - Thomas Quiney, an innkeeper - was convened by the parish court for "fornication". A woman named Margaret Wheeler had given birth and claimed that the child was the innkeeper, but the mother and child died soon after this dark episode. Quiney was disgraced, and Shakespeare corrigea his will to ensure that the interests of Judith him secure his name.
Shakespeare died on April 23, 1616, at the age of 52 years. He remained married to Anne until his death and his two daughters survived him. Susanna married Dr. John Hall, and even if both daughters of Shakespeare were themselves children, none of them did descendants. So far, so there is no direct descendants of the poet.
Shakespeare is buried in the choir of the Church of the Trinity in Stratford-upon-Avon. He received the right to be buried in the choir of the church, not through his life as playwright, but after he became member of the church by paying the tithe of the parish (£ 440, a sum important). A bust commissioned by her family represents, writing on the wall adjacent to his grave. Each year, the date of his birthday, on a new goose feather in the right hand of the poet.
At the time of Shakespeare, it was common to make room in the tombs parish by moving them to another cemetery. Fearing that his remains would be removed from the tomb, we think he has composed this epitaph for his tombstone:
My friend, for the love of the Saviour, abstain yourself
To dig the dust deposited on me.
Blessed is the man who will save these stones
But is he cursed violating my ossuary.
The popular legend has it that new works based on Shakespeare's tomb, but nobody ever checked, probably for fear of the curse mentioned in the epitaph.
See also his contemporary Christopher Marlowe, Ben Jonson, Thomas Kyd, Queen Elizabeth I and Edward de Vere.
Above all known for his works dramaturgiques, Shakespeare is a versatile artist: sonnets, farces, comedies, tragedies and historical pieces ... The writer goes from one type to another without effort, blurring the tracks and making hard work of classification. Moreover, it seems so prolific that he attributes (or withdrawn) some contemporary compositions.
The dramatic and their classification
The pieces are traditionally classified into several categories: tragedies, comedies and historical pieces, following the logical order of publication, but modern critics have given the name "exhibit problem" for certain works that escaped a categorization too simplistic and that will obviously against the traditional conventions. In addition, recent comedies of Shakespeare are commonly called "romances."
The following list gives the pieces in their ranking after the first Folio of 1623 (the first edition of the evidence in the same volume). An asterisk indicates a piece now classified as "romance"; two asterisks indicate those considered as "parts problem" - even if some comedies are still the center of critical debate. To see the documents in their drafting order, see the Chronology of Shakespeare's plays.
* Romeo et Juliette (Romeo and Juliet)
* King Lear (King Lear)
* Hamlet, Prince of Denmark (Hamlet, Prince of Denmark)
* Othello or the Moor of Venice (Othello, the Moor of Venice)
* Titus Andronicus
* Julius Caesar (Julius Caesar)
* Antony and Cleopatra (Antony and Cleopatra)
* Coriolanus (Coriolanus)
* Troïlus and Cressida (Troilus and Cressida) **
* Timon of Athens (Timon of Athens)
* All's well that ends well (All's Well that Ends Well)
* As You Like It (As You Like It)
* A Midsummer Night's Dream (A Midsummer Night's Dream)
* Much ado about nothing (Much Ado About Nothing)
* Measure for Measure (Measure for Measure) **
* The Mégère tamed (The Taming of the Shrew)
* La Nuit des rois (Twelfth Night)
* The Merchant of Venice (The Merchant of Venice) **
* Happy Commères Windsor (The Merry Wives of Windsor)
* Sentences of love lost (Love's Labour's Lost)
* The Two Gentlemen of Verona (The Two Gentlemen of Verona)
* The Comedy of Errors (The Comedy of Errors)
Parts historical Shakespeare
* Richard III
* Richard II
* Henry VI, Part 1, Part 2, Part 3 (Henry VI, Part 1, Part 2, Part 3)
* Henry V (Henry V)
* Henry IV, Part 1, Part 2 (Henry IV, Part 1, Part 2)
* Henry VIII (Henry VIII)
* Jean King (King John)
* Edward III (Edward III)
* Sir Thomas More
The Romances late Shakespeare
* Péricles, Prince of Tyre (Pericles, Prince of Tyre) *
Cymbeline * *
* Le Conte Winter (The Winter's Tale) *
* The Tempest (The Tempest) *
* The Two Noble Cousins (The Two Noble Kinsmen) *
His other literary works include:
* Sonnets (see Sonnet)
* Feature poems
Read also Romeo and Juliet