Flamenco (flamenco song) is an art created by the people and Andalusian gypsy, on the basis of a popular folklore from the various cultures that flourished throughout the centuries in Spain.

The original flamenco was a simle song (song) a cappella which was the first kind toná, established in the triangle formed by Triana, Jerez and Cadiz. The original Then came the slam hands (palmas), dance (el baile) and guitar (toque). Dance and guitar speak now often alone, although the song is still considered the heart of tradition. More recently, instruments like the cajón (a percussion instrument from Peru), the palillos (castanets), and bass were introduced into the environment.

Define what is the exact origin of the term "flamenco" is not easy. There are many theories about the origins of this term, although the most prevalent is perhaps the one that defends Blas Infante in his book Origins of flamenco. According to the father of the Andalusian autonomy, the word "flamenco" drift terms felah Arab-Mengus, which involved mean "roaming farmer."

Many fans also know the curious theory stating that flamenco was the name of a knife or a dagger. That is why, in the El Soldado Fanfarrón skit, written by Gonzalez del Castillo in the eighteenth century, we read: El melitar that sacó para mi esposo, a flamenco ( "The military, who came out to my husband, a flamenco). In another 'copla (song) takeover by Rodríguez Marín, he said: If I s'ajuma er pescao ( "If the fish is burning) / y desenvaino er flamenco (" and if I leave my flamenco) / con cuarenta Puñal (with 40 shots stabbing) / se iba a rematar el cuento ( "going to finish the story"). However, this hypothesis has never been a place, as well as the assumption that the name was given in kind for the bird called flamenco (Flamingo). The authority of this precept is also due to Rodríguez Marín, who justified his position by arguing that the singers interpreted the song with a short jacket, they were broken and large in size, and that was why they resembled the waders of the same name.

Flamenco has its roots in three cultures: Muslim, Jewish and Andalusian. Exegetes, musicologists, researchers agree today that Triana (Seville area), is the birthplace of flamenco. It is in this city, as poets and musicians found refuge to the sixteenth century. Other sources, such as the library of Seville, traces the coming of troubadours "refugees" because of persecution in the thirteenth century.

It is often said that flamenco was born Gypsies. This, as highlighted Michel Dieuzaide is not quite accurate, and nuance: "Flamenco is not to be confused with Gypsies, he must; the PAYOS (or gadgés for Roma), play an important role, but the gypsies give his style. " Some historians believe that by nomadic gypsies, have greatly contributed to the spread of flamenco arriving in Spain at the beginning of the fifteenth century.

Gypsies incorporated various Muslim sounds like we can still hear it today, with Abdelkrim el Hadj Raïs 1, while changing the pace. They also inspired liturgical hymns Mozarabs Christians, or "rites Mozarabs" whose presence is attested from the early ninth century. These liturgies will be replaced (if not prohibited) to the beginning of the eleventh century by the popes who followed, as well as the kings of Castile and Aragon. They will be allowed again in the sixteenth century by Bishop Cisneros of the Cathedral of Toledo, who saw a good way to bring home the "infidels". The Mozarabic appears fully in the poetry of the troubadours called muwachchaha ", a term that found deformed in the Roma language as" muvaachaha. "

Finally, the deep musical sensitivity of the Gypsies, also draws in a gentle, exile and sorrow lullabies Jewish mothers.

It is very difficult to determine before the eighteenth century, how was represented the "ancestor" of flamenco. Pieces of music from the sixteenth (born around 930-960) and having circulated in southern Europe, Corsica, Andalusia and Catalonia in countries such as "Cannot of Sibilla" - while also prohibited by the Church - can give us an idea of Arab-Andalusian sounds, which included the voices and the sound of the instruments of that time.

Alongside the traditional instruments used, one of them appears not to have changed. This is the "Rubab, former vielle two strings hose sheep, which draws on the sounds with a bow in horsehair. Melodious sound of the instrument, may, without further details, according to the musicologist Garcia Matos, have been used to support those we can name the "first" cantaores. It seems that the mandolin has been used, but, without further precision significant, if not a few very old photos dated 1900.

At the end of the seventeenth early eighteenth, flamenco is beginning to be recognized and claimed by the excluded and deprived. The singing alone, as in tona used to hide the comments and criticisms of policy. It was not until the mid-eighteenth and nineteenth century, that it will begin to be recognized, and have a social and cultural role, who will speak first in the workplace, friends, or family reunion. It is sometimes written that flamenco was popularized in the late eighteenth century in Jerez de la Frontera in Andalusia, by Tio Luis el de la Juliana. In carrying water from the source of Albarizones to Jerez that created the singer's songs. His name has created many conflicts between the old flamenco, because his biography could never be a consensus. Today, this debate has even more importance because it is always impossible to prove the fact that he existed. It was at Triana, that will open the first tablaos, cafes Ancestors-concerts. But the success of flamenco at its downside also. He lost in the 1920s to about 1950 - the date of its revival - its soul. Involved in a pseudo folklore "low floor", it will only appeal to an ever-increasing numbers in search of trivialities.

It was not until the 1950s, so that an important job for amateurs to discover the most beautiful and vibrant pages of flamenco past by the first major anthology edited by flamenco Ducretet-Thomson who won the Prix Charles Cros in 1956. Mario Wood, moved in 1985 to "Chant du Monde" to create an anthology. The archives recording of the greatest performers cover a twenty volumes. For the latter, the work was very difficult: "How to find this music in the maze of publishing? We can say that 80% of what is meant poor, 15% is "goodwill", but remains rare, is a strength, a flamboyant fascinating."

Flamenco forms
The cante flamenco consists of a number of traditional (and more modern), with rhythmic and harmonic structures different. The pace (COMP) is probably the most important feature to distinguish the different forms of flamenco. The pieces are composed of several "sentences" or falsetas whose intense feeling, rhythm is defined by the main form of the song.

Some forms are sung unaccompanied, while others use a guitar or other accompaniment. Some forms that can speak through dance. In addition to certain songs and dances are traditionally the preserve of men, and others are reserved for women. But many traditional aspects lose their rigidity. The farruca for example, traditionally a male dance, is also practiced by women.

Read also Matador


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