The contredanse supposed means a dance of English origin (country dance: dance campaign), although some historians say the original French (against dance: dance vis-a-vis).
The contredanse English has emerged in the mid-sixteenth century, at the beginning of the reign of Elizabeth of England Ie, and the dancing master John Playford (1623-1686) gave him his credentials by publishing in 1651, The English Dancing Master. The book will 18 editions, until 1728, and will be increased by a second volume (1713-1728), then a third (1719 and 1727).
The contredanse spreads in France from 1684, thanks to the dancing master and Isaac English dancer Andre Lorin, who invents a rating system including Pierre Beauchamp and will draw sheet to start a writing course to be until the middle nineteenth century.
The contredanse English has continued to us, especially in the form of Scottish reel, while the French contredanse gave birth in the early nineteenth century, a simplified and standardized the quadrille.
Description forms of Contredanse
There are two kinds of Contredanse:
* The contredanse English, or "pillar" (in English: Longway for as many as will), consists of two lines arranged face to face: a row of men is facing a row of ladies. The first couple in the first resumption of the figure and finishes in second place. Recovery in recovery, it continues to "down" to find the last two rows of seats, while other couples have increased by as many tickets to "High" dance, then down as well, once arrived in the first place. Dance is deemed completed when the first couple returned to its original place.
* Contredanse the French dance "square" four couples arranged on the sides of a square dance for two, four or eight, as the figure the order. Traditionally, the dance takes place in alternating nine entries (couplets) with a "chorus" (Figure specific contredanse). The nine entries are in order: the round, hand, two hands, drafts of the reel, the reel men, the ladies round, the round of the men, German and again round to finish.
* 1. The round (or large round): the eight dancers give hands and turning circle formed eight measures in the direction of the shows (with evicted side, assemble the last time) and "distract" eight measures in the direction against the shows.
* 2. The hand: the partners are face to face, they give the right hand and change places in two steps, make a Rigaudon, returning to their place of departure is giving this time the left hand and make Rigaudon again.
* 3. Both hands: as above, but the partners will provide both hands on the outward and return.
* 4. The windmilling ladies: the four ladies join hands right at the center of the square and turn four measures in the direction of the shows (in half-backs). They drop the right hand, make a U-turn, joins hands left to center and return to their places of departure in the same way.
* 5. The windmilling of men: the entry above performed equally by men.
* 6. The ladies round is the first entry (the round) performed by the four ladies only, in four steps towards the clock and four measures in the opposite direction.
* 7. The circle of men: the entry above performed equally by men.
* 8. The German partners are side by side, shoulders straight into contact, they give the hands, arms crossed behind his back (man, left arm behind his back, took the right hand of the lady, the lady is the Conversely). They turn a U-turn in the direction of the clock in two measures (not hunted before), will release and make a Rigaudon face to face. They take the opposite (left shoulder in contact), returning to their places of departure in a U-turn in the direction against the clock and make another Rigaudon face to face.
* 9. The round: resumption of the first entry.
These figures are used mainly for couplets.
* Forward and backward or forward and back: the dancer performs a step forward gavotte (two steps) and back (two).
* The German across
* Hunting and dechasser (or hunting above and below): partners are side by side at the start, changing place laterally into two measures (not driven). Mrs. hunting left, before the man hunting right. The following two measures to reduce the partners places of origin, the man from this time before the lady. It often adds a step Rigaudon at the end of each trip.
* Hunting in long hunt for later: the partners of odd couples are back and hunt with the against-partner, then return to their places of origin. Couples peers then execute the same figure among them.
* The stroller: partners being face to face, the right hand of one in the left hand of another man fell into two measures while the lady advance, a step gavotte, then on the inverse directions, two other measures. Every two steps, you can add a Rigaudon if the musical structure suggests. This figure also allows two couples side by side swapping their places.
* The small chain: it is usually performed by couples vis-a-vis. Each dancer exchange places with those who faced him in giving the right hand by the way, then give the left hand to her partner in changing room again. A half-chain is done. The journey continues square as well to regain his starting place in alternate right hand and left hand. The complete figure occupies eight bars and dance not gavotte or half-backs.
* The great chain partners of each couple face and shake hands right to change places. The man comes face to the woman next to him and gives his left hand, and so on until everyone has returned to its place of origin. The complete figure occupies eight bars and dance half-backs.
* The cat's tail: it is performed by couples vis-a-vis held by the hand. The two couples bypass the lines against the clock to find the places opposite. The figure occupies eight bars and dance not gavotte or half-backs. It ends with a Rigaudon. The other two pairs are the same. After a resumption of all, each couple will find its place of origin.
* The four sides: couples head forward at each other by joining hands will drop in arriving at the center and give both their hands towards, and then the two new pairs each head to couples not driven side. They each route in the opposite direction and return to their seats. The brand occupies eight measures. The two later do the same in turn.
* The square Mahony: couples head forward at each other by joining hands will drop in arriving at the center and give both hands to their vis-a-vis, and the two new couples are moving to each seating couples side not hunted, each fell around the square and return to their respective places not hunted. Meanwhile, couples in not later chased away, moving to places couples head, come to the center with their vis-a-vis and return to their respective places backwards. The figure occupies sixteen measures, then it is repeated in reverse, couples headaches depart beginning, couples move aside by the center.
The figures of contredanse English
* Get-Up: this is the figure that corresponds to the down-Lead lead up to John Playford. Partners cont coast to coast and shake hands inside. They descend in the middle of training and 4 measures (half backs), change direction and hand back to their places of origin in four measures. Hands down say they want to stand face to face and give both hands. The lateral movement is in not hunted.
* Turn down: according to the usual practice in Contredanse English, this figure corresponds to Cast down: the dancer down a place in its row by outside training (behind the second dancer). The figure brings the couple still moving forward for a place at a time, descending or climbing. She is usually two steps and is half-backs.
* Cross a couple journey during which the partners meet in the middle of training and pass behind the second couple of dancers, to finish in second place, the lady in the row of men and the man in the ladies .
* Display is to move alone or in couples (not in a gavotte) to another dancer or another couple. This figure occupies two measures.
* The Eight: the figure of eight is danced by a man around the second couple, from the anti-clockwise around the lady and counter-clockwise around the man to return to its place of departure. His partner is symmetrically from counter-clockwise around the second man in the opposite direction around the second lady. Several variations of this figure are possible, either in different ways, either with opposing pairs, or with his own partner.
* The hey: this figure, which already speaks Thoinot Arbeau in his Orchesographie, is frequently used in English contredanse. Three dancers perform simultaneously a figure of eight and return to their places of departure. The first dancer starts with a clockwise loop, crosses between the second and the second case, continues with a loop in the opposite direction and crossed again between the second and third to regain its place of departure.
Description of key steps
The key not used in the contredanse in the eighteenth century are described according to Pierre Rameau. Here is not the eight main
* 1. The setback of gavotte (Rameau, p. 166):
o (&) in support on the left foot, point right back in third position, bend the left leg
o (1) jump on the spot on the left foot and extending the right leg
o (&) a step in the right foot forward on edge
o (2) a step left foot forward, on edge
* 2. The assembly is a movement which jumped hence support a single or double, leads to a closed position (feet). The assembly is often no other conclusion:
o (1) jumps back feet, knees bent, followed almost immediately by an extension
o (2) break, or preparation of the next step
* 3. The no gavotte consists of two parts, namely a setback (first step), followed assemble a (second measure)
* 4. The half-setback is not a sort of hopping or "bell-foot sandwich that could bring on the rhythm of the hunted
* 5. The ousted as a "galloping" side. Chasse left (Rameau, pp. 175-176):
o (1) starting in second place, jumping on the right foot
o (&) a step side left foot, while maintaining support equal on the right foot
* 6. The not stuffed, sometimes called no stuffed (forward, backward or above and below), sometimes foil or no stuffed simplified (Rameau, pp. 123-124):
o (&) in support on the left foot, point right back in third position, bend both legs in bringing the right foot near the left without support ( "what is folding under itself," writes Rameau)
o (1) a step in the right foot forward on edge
o (&) a step left foot forward, on edge
o (2) a step in the right foot forward on edge
o the last three can not be run forward, backward or side (above and below) as the command is the
* 7. The balance is a rocking one foot to another, from front to rear (Rameau, pp. 153-154):
o (&) in support on both feet, bend both legs
o (1) a step in the right foot forward on edge
o (&) lower right heel, while bringing the left leg bent
o (2) a step left foot back on edge
o (&) lower left heel, while bringing the right leg bent
* 8. The Rigaudon is a conclusion that the formula has no rhythm of the gavotte. It plays a decorative role, ends with an assembled on site and runs (Rameau, pp. 159-160):
o (1) a jump on the left foot, while the right leg opens laterally to the right
o (&) a jump on the right foot, while the left leg opens laterally to the left
o (2) join the left foot to right foot, on the spot
o (3-4) jump feet
Read also Flamenco