The Yi Jing (sinogrammes易经simpl. /易经trad., Pinyin Yi Jing, Wade-Giles i4 ching1 also misspelled or Yi King Yi King) is a Chinese textbook whose title is translated as "Classic of Changes or "Book of changes". The correct translation would approach Memory or treaty of the canonical Mue 'and its principle is to consider the potential traces of ongoing change, present and future. It is also telling that we do with this book we sometimes also called Zhou Yi (周易, pinyin: Zhou Yi, Wade-Giles: Chou1 I4) ie " Changes of Zhou ".
Its development dates back to the early first millennium before the Christian era, when Western Zhou. It occupies a place in the history of Chinese thought and may be considered as a treaty unique whose purpose is to describe the state of the world and their evolutions. It is the first of five classical and therefore considered the oldest Chinese text.
The Yi Jing is the result of speculative research and cosmological developed, whose joints have informed Chinese thinking sustainably. Its mathematical structure has impressed Leibniz who first saw the formulation of binary arithmetic. Indeed, from an opposition / complementarity between the principles of Yin and Yang (adret and Ubac, sun and moon, male and female, active and passive, etc.). Subdividing and this duality in a systematic way, the Yi Jing reaches the Series 64 states and all possible transformations between them.
"The Yi-King or Book of changes in the archaic Chinese magic makes the closest copy of the identity of the Genesis and Genetics. The circular loop is a circle cosmological vortex symbolically by S interior that both separates and unites the Yin and Yang. The figure is formed not from the center but the periphery and born of the encounter between opposing directions of movement. Yin and Yang are intimately married into one another, but distinct, they are both complementary, competing, conflicting. The primary figure of Yi-King is a figure of order, harmony, but carries with it the idea vortex and the principle of antagonism. It is a complex figure. "
- Edgar Morin, La Méthode 1. The Nature of Nature, p. 228, Seuil, Paris, 1977.
Origin according to the tradition
Chinese tradition traces the Book of changes to the invention of trigrams by Fuxi, considered the holy spoken a sentence of the commentary Shiyi (Zhouyi xiCi周易.系辞): "From the River [yellow] is an image output and the [river] Luo a book, a saint has imitated. (Sinogrammes:河出图洛出书圣人则之, Pinyin: héchūtú luòchūshū shèngrénzézhī)
Yu the Great, founder of the Xia dynasty, is sometimes identified with the saint, but in his time that the 64 hexagrams in full are gathered in the Lian Shan (连山) (succession of mountains). This is the first of the three books mentioned by the mutations Zhouli (周礼). It began with the hexagram mountains (艮, GEN), which represent two mountains superimposed, hence its name.
Fuxi and Yu are deemed to have received their inspiration from hexagrams drawn on a turtle or a horse (Fuxi, image of the Yellow River) and a book carried by a turtle (Yu, Book of the Luo).
The advent of the Shang dynasty was the occasion for a new reading of hexagrams materialized in the second Book of Changes, the归藏Gui Cang (back and ensiling) beginning with the hexagram earth (坤, Kun), the name of the book evokes.
During the reign of the last of the Shang, King Wen of Zhou took the hexagrams and produces a ranking that placed the hexagram sky (干, Qian) in mind: this was the announcement of a dynastic change. He wrote an explanation for each hexagram, the guaci (卦辞). Zhou Gong, brother of King Wu, completed the work in drafting the yaoci (爻辞), line by line explanation of the different hexagrams. The Yi Jing is the third and only remaining books changes cited by the Zhouli, the first two had already disappeared under the Han.
Attributed to Confucius during the Spring and Autumn comment Shiyi (十翼) (ten wings), also called Yizhuan (易传) ( "commentary by Yi Jing") from Han Wudi. The Yi Jing Shiyi and inseparable in China form the Zhou Yi (周易). It has been the subject of numerous reviews secondary, which can be divided into two broad categories: philosophical (eg, Wang Bi, Cheng Yi (程颐) 1033-1107) and practical (eg Jing Fang (京房) of Western Han, Shao Yong (邵雍) 1011-1077).
The Zhou Yi would have escaped the burning ordered by Qin Shihuang with Li Si, which would have classified by deception in the books of medicine and divination. This explanation, which seeks to reduce its utility, represents the views of the foremost scholars wishing to see a book and Confucian philosophy. The Yi Jing has also been included in the five classics as a basis for the education of scholars.
Date and authors
No definitive answer has yet been given to these two questions. The Yi Jing is itself written in a language full of elliptical archaic characters that places writing before the second half of the eighth century BC. J.-C.. The admission of Chinese contemporary, the meaning has become almost impenetrable, hence the need to comment, but the style seems consistent throughout, suggesting a writer, or at least one point of view. Shiyi comment, attributed to Confucius by the Shiji is quite easily accessible to a reader trained in classical Chinese. Presenting a rather Confucian morality and, nevertheless, it offers clear differences of style and viewpoint crossing pass, and therefore originated multiple authors. The assumptions of its time of writing range from the early eighth century BC. AD at the beginning of the Christian era.
It consults the Yi Jing in the trigrams and hexagrams that are related by tire related.
The hexagrams are figures based on a combination of six lines each of which can take one of these two forms: the solid line (Yang) and repeated the line (Yin). Both forms themselves are divided into two categories: emerging and related mutant trait. Each hexagram was later added a comment containing information on the quality of the state concerned.
Consulting the Yi Jing
Explore the Yi Jing requires understanding a system of signs and symbols, organized and interpreted, which still allows reading a second reading, by definition, as is any text. The charm of this reading comes from a question that remains about the meaning, when applied to a random situation, and supposed to provide a response adapted or adaptable. We have an esoteric and pragmatic, philosophical and moral presumed contain some wisdom.
If you forget the magic and primitive of the original text, there is a poetic and naturalistic research, which is not without interest. If you prefer interroger divinatory dimension of this text, which then functions as a game, it remains to discover the relationship that builds around a guess and a guess, a signifier and a signified, from a playful speculation about the nature of the world of energies and forms which constitute it.
Consult the Yi Jing is a practice, ancient and unique, which has spanned the centuries and even millennia, and this suggests the ongoing sustainability issues, through time, without necessarily ensure validity of responses. On the contrary, it appears that the variability of responses to the consultant is always the possibility of reformulating the question to specify the contour, and hence to adapt his views to the text as it is translated.
Reading and understanding
The Yi Jing offers a "world map", which attempts to reflect both the nature of its changes, and humans, their relationships, also change.
The structure of the text is both very simple, eight blocks, and quite complex, sixty-four variations, with six shades additional features or variants, within each variation. In this structure, purely formal, there is an additional difficulty for Westerners: the language and writing Chinese, which, like any language, and writing, puns, double meanings, implicit references, similar shapes and sounds that are evocative richness of the original, and are barriers to understanding.
The Yi Jing is a valuable document, which belongs to the heritage of humanity, and is among the treasures of thought chinoise.Il a result of the particularity of the first Eastern pictographic writing, and first formalized arithmetic.
Some indications and clues, however:
* Sixty-four hexagrams 64 represent intermediate stages of a cycle eminently renewable and generally characterized by the philosophy of "Yin-Yang";
* Each hexagram is as arcane a couple of "crisis-opportunity", the image of a singular energy mix, which allows or would allow to combine a suspected diagnosis and advocating more or less explicit;
* Each hexagram is like a step on the road, as a singular moment, dream of reflection, meditation or preparation, a few examples:
1 o the creative teaching to manage the force Yang;
o 2 the receptive, to manage the teaching force Yin;
No. 29 is a situation indicative of the challenge of the book: it is clear the obstacle, to move despite the uncertainty, finding the link between his journey and its purpose;
o 63 - unstable equilibrium in the satisfaction (after completion);
o 64 - unstable equilibrium in the dissatisfaction ( "before completion");
Question the Yi Jing
Analysis and divination
The Yi Jing has tracks on the current state of the world and its possible developments, acting as an oracle that consults before taking a decision on a difficult issue.
The most popular method to interrogate the Yi Jing requires only three coins. It assigns the value "2" cell, and "3" to face. (This is only a convention, the reverse is quite possible.) According to the three pieces fall on heads or tails, you get a sum of between 6 and 9.
6 is the mutant Yin (Yin or old)
7 corresponds to the nascent Yang (Yang / youth)
8 corresponds to nascent Yin (Yin / youth)
9 is the Yang mutant (or old Yang)
The traits can be found in order, from bottom to top. After six jets, we obtain a complete hexagram.
* Simply refer to the table of hexagrams to know the name of the hexagram and driving tips on the issue that had previously been careful to put in writing.
* The presence of mutant traits (young or young Yin Yang) defines telling whether the position of consultant.
The original method, the achilleomancie to question the oracle, is preferred by some fans as it is supposed to lead to a greater concentration of the person interviewed, and the media (sometimes the same). In addition, the probabilities of drawing results differ somewhat depending on the technique used. It uses a group of 50 yarrow stalks of leafy miles (Achillea millefolium), whose stem is removed, then it divides successively to eighteen times (three times for each of the six traits of the hexagram) in two groups of importance not determined by counting each time the number of stems remaining after removal of groups of 4 stems. All computations each time forming a line of the hexagram.(SONY)
Read also Confucianism