Culinary Arts

Culinary Arts
The culinary art is the form used by cooks, or the principles apply to cooking an art form, either in the presentation in food choice in the choice of seats. There are many marriages of different flavors. This art takes place in the kitchens of the world, but more often to meet in restaurants. It is open to persons who wish to develop a palace, a story from food, miscellaneous income. The culinary arts of a country is often different from one another and gives in some cases a strong identity. The art of cooking has evolved over the ages and dates back to prehistory.

Even before the emergence of modern man's ancestors, like many animals, certainly in the process of preparation of the basic foods:

* Cleaning the water,
* Removal of a portion of a consumable carrion or fruit,
* Opening of shellfish,
* Grinding by hand with a tool (and not only with teeth)
* Mixtures.

The discovery of fire is a milestone because it marked the invention of the kitchen itself, the heat of the fire to cook food, a kitchen essential. Adding even small amounts of significantly changing the taste, and food is an important step in the evolution of food and the history of the kitchen.

Salt, in particular, plays a vital role in preserving food. The use of cooking utensils (flat stones, leather skins, pottery) diversifies cooking methods and limits the risk of burning the food. The man begins to use fat and transforms the grain into flour to make pancakes.

The invention and development of agriculture are changing the eating habits of men.

Whether in the texts engraved on the walls of temples and tombs or in the form of offering material remains of the ancient Egypt have left numerous traces of their diet. The bread was part of staple foods. We found nearly two dozen kinds of bread shapes and various compositions. Egyptian diet was supplemented with fish, meat (usually lamb, pork and poultry, and beef for special occasions), fruits (dates, figs, pomegranates, melons and grapes) and vegetables (garlic, cabbage, cucumber, bean, lettuce, lentils, onion, leek, peas and radishes). Finally, the honey produced in hives from the earth, entering the composition of desserts and many remedies. Written sources from antiquity show us that the early centuries of our history was marked by frugality and moderation. Agriculture and crops random exchanges which were set up, attitudes were pushing men to "eat to live, not live to eat." The menu preferred vegetables, cereals and cheese, more meat was reserved for sacrificial banquets, public or private. Food served medicine: doctors prescribe food as a remedy for ailments, herbs, wine entering the composition of various medicines. In its most prosperous period, the Roman civilization gave birth to many of her recipes and culinary art was brought to the summit. The use of honey, pine nuts, for frying, wine, many vegetables, olive oil, cheese, pudding, the sweet and salty omelette, the garum (sauce based on fish), fruits, meats and spices from all over the area of influence of the Empire and even helped further extend the range of dishes. However, wheat and wheat are staple foods for most of the Romans, including the army.

Middle Ages
The recipes are mainly medieval known by Cuisiniers known in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance in Europe, whose Viandier of Taillevent (Guillaume Tirel 1310-1395)

And liked it so much the Middle Age this tradition continues. The great royal and aristocratic banquets are under phenomenal dishes of venison and roasted poultry and reconstituted with hair and feathers in which is hidden from other meats and even fish. Few vegetables, plenty of spices to hide the questionable taste of the meat.

The medieval European cuisine is characterized by a taste for the flavors acid (vinegar, verjuice, citrus) or sour-sweet (besides sugar, raisins, prunes, dates ...) by the scents of spices (cinnamon, ginger, nail cloves, pepper, Maniguet, nutmeg ...) and liaison sauces grilled bread or almonds. The kitchen médiévale prefers grilled meat or cooked in sauce, fragrant spices, while the ancient Roman cuisine reserve more space to fruits and vegetables, and herbs. The medieval dinner is more like a buffet with several services to a menu where all the guests eat the same thing. The sweet and salty are not separated during the meal, unlike the modern era in which sweetness comes mainly at dessert. Marco Polo (1254-1324) discovered the route to India and promote trade in spices. Finally, the cuisine of medieval Europe is a cuisine without tomatoes or potatoes, we do not maize, chilli, pepper, turkey, cocoa, vanilla, pineapple which ... 'come to America after Christopher Columbus (1451-1506). But we discover the pasta in the ninth century

With the Crusades, the West experienced its first food revolution with the introduction of fruits and vegetables oriental: shallots, apricots, orange and new products such as sugar candy. The appearance of tables and stoves to prepare food (XIIIe s) and multiplication of kitchen equipment (stoves, caquerolles, pans, funny, tourtieres).

The emergence of braised cooking, the meat is boiled before being roasted (technical advantage and hygienic meat is more tender, maturation compensates for its low distortion and avoids aromatic due to a significant microbial growth). The sauces are acidic and spicy (verjus) associated with egg yolks or bread + use sugar and honey. It does not use fat because it sets too volatile aromas. Spices play different roles (social distinctions, hiding food, prophylactic) use massive game (free as aristocrats) swans, peacocks ...

Renaissance fifteenth and sixteenth century

Nostradamus Platinum Cremona
Renaissance knows a new kitchen, cookbooks are increasingly advocating the abandonment of the excessive use of spices for a taste of the real search of food. Catherine de Medici is not only the range in his luggage but his taste for vegetables - artichokes loved it - and sauces. The discovery of the New World brings to the table of new foods: tomatoes, corn, chocolate, turkey and potatoes. Is also a new service which will remain long the fruit is served as a starter, followed by boiled, burps and meat, and desserts. The Italian influence moves through the union of Henry II with Catherine de Medici (1519-1589) and that of Henry IV to Marie de Medicis.

The scenario pastries (from Italy), jelly and marzipan and gingerbread and nougat. It uses the proceeds from New World peppers, beans, chocolate, and (later) tomatoes, corn, potatoes ...

Birth of the great kitchen of the seventeenth century

François Vattelian

Appearance of stews and sauces more elaborate: connection to bread, flour, with egg yolks but also use the technique of reduction and red. Declining consumption of spices in order to meet the tastes and flavors of food. Birth of the ancestors of funds: juices and sauces. Appearance of foam for women.

The eighteenth century


Birth Corporations trades mouth (= butchers meat; = tripe offal; caterers stews ... =) OVERRIDING alchemical thought: there is research vital juices, the sauce perfect. Early culinary names. Finalizing the first hearth furnaces.

The nineteenth century
Alexandre Dumas (1802-1870) see doc Monselet Charles (creator of the first newspaper gastronomique the "gourmet")

discovery of appertization born in 1795 the agri-food and industrial furnaces Appearance of iron with homes and interiors of the first gas stoves (circa 1850) 1857 first refrigerating. Increased cooking methods: braising, frying ... Discovery of beet sugar, margarine and tropical fruits.

The nineteenth and twentieth centuries have been marked by improvement in the Western diet. After an increase in consumption of sugar, accompanying an increase in food rations, food becomes healthier. The diet is more varied, including the largest share of protein, and healthy, conservation techniques (but also pasteurization), can significantly reduce foodborne illness. These increasing trends in the twentieth century, will codify Escoffier in his Guide Culinaire "research and natural taste of each food, the chefs are becoming more and cookbooks abound. As the years, fastes and easy to taste, refined. Gourmets seek the harmony of flavors, textures opposition. They want to be surprised once and ask the leaders to be more inventive and respected products. The housekeepers can make home recipes for chefs, because all sign cookbooks remarkably explained and illustrated. The taste for cuisines and flavors was also accentuated by the presence of exotic fruits.

Birth of the hotel industry (palaces) Establishment of the Michelin Guide, the Culinary Academy and the first hotel school (nice, thonon, toulouse) More recently, there is particular to a surprising mix of all cuisines in the world. Not only are we going to eat in restaurants with foreign food and more or less exotic, we even imitate at home. The globalization of food trade is largely responsible. Never had access to a variety of foods.

The very recent phenomenon of fast-food chains has been able to make the most of this evolution and spread in a few years in all regions of the world.

Late twentieth century, a presentation of the plates becomes more important as the quality and sophistication of the dishes. Creating Start Menu tastings twenty-first century discovery of the molecular cuisine Increase in food hygiene rules.

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