Any object can produce sound controlled by a musician, it is designed, modified or rejected its use can be considered a musical instrument. The voice or hands, even if they are not objects, are regarded as musical instruments if they participate in a musical work.
In its attack mode, form and matter of his sounding board, support or otherwise of its vibration, the musical instrument determines the tone, one of four characteristics of sound with height, length and intensity. Advances in acoustic music can better understand the spectrum of harmonic components specific to each sound source.
A musical instrument is divided into two distinct parts:
* One that creates the vibration,
* One that transforms this vibration into a stamp that characterizes it.
Whatever their field, the instruments are classified by their method of sound production: organology is the detailed study of these tools of music makers and their different classifications. The timbre of these instruments can sometimes be transformed by an accessory such as mutes for strings and brass, or a kazoo for voice.
To make a sound, vibration can be created from a cord, a column of air or percussion instruments can combine multiple systems, the latest range from electro to virtual.
Material, size and varied in size, a rope can be rubbed, or pinch hit.
* The strings (or Chordophones)
- Bowed stringed instruments such as violin, or hurdy-gurdy,
- Plucked string instruments like the guitar or the piano, or harp
- Strings hit, like the piano or dulcimer.
The column of air in wind instruments (or aerophones) can be produced by the breath of the musician, by a mechanical blower or an air pocket.
* Voice exploit the full potential of the mucous membranes of the larynx (vocal cords).
* The wood has a bevel or reed:
- Instrument bevel, like all games flutes or mouth organ,
- Free-reed instrument like the harmonica or accordion,
- Single-reed instrument like the clarinet or saxophone,
- Double reed instrument like the oboe or bassoon.
* The Brass using the vibration of the lips into a mouthpiece as trumpets, cornetts or amazing didgeridoo.
Percussion, with its fixed or not, include any instrument by which a body hits another.
* The Skin (or membranophones), a membrane-stricken hands or chopsticks, or not granted as the djembe or mug;
* The Keyboard (or lamellaphones, idiophones his determined), a series of blades provided wooden or metal rods stricken as the xylophone or the steel drum;
* Accessories (idiophones or his unknown) ... all the others: the triangle of maracas.
NB The drums were divided by the theorists' membranophones "and" idiophones "(like" chordophone "and" aerophone ", these terms are not common and not dictionaries). The development of this large family (over 500) in the twentieth century, and especially instruments "keyboard" or "slices", has imposed this new categorization for both drummers and for teachers.
Combination of instruments
Instruments combining several modes of vibration setting:
* Mechanical instruments, such as bird-organ or organ.
Read also India Music