A safety pin or safety pin and captive (Suisse Romande) is a small object used to tie together pieces of fabric in a timely and temporary.
They are usually metal, nickel for silver or aluminum for those of lesser quality, and brass for gold. If their shapes, sizes and colors may vary, the safety pins are usually mounted on a spring and hot end is protected by a cap.
His character of security that comes from the hot end is protected by a hood, which almost completely reduces the risk of injury, unlike the ordinary pin on the other hand, the precision of gesture that requires opening limit the risks it happen by accident.
The ancestor of the safety pin is a brooch whose use was largely cosmetic.
The bronze pin like a safety pin, used to maintain two pieces of fabric on the shoulder and dating from the fifth century BC. AD, were found in Western Europe.
The safety pin as it exists today with a spring and the hot end was hidden in New York invented by Walter Hunt in 1849. Legend has it that he has rediscovered this object by mechanically manipulating a piece of wire and had sold the patent rights to a friend for 400 dollars to settle a debt of $ 15. The patent was filed April 10, 1849 under the number 6 281.
If the safety pin has not changed much since its invention, manufacturing processes have, in turn, followed the technological progress. From the fifteenth century, they are directly manufactured from wire. The invention of the automatic lathe metal in 1864 which will fully mechanize the process. In France, the first automatic assembly safety pin is attributed to Benjamin Bohin in 1890.
It is used as an accessory or as a piercing especially in the punk culture of the street and in its commercial recovery as a fashion trend. The first English punk inspired often practices and fetish objects and practiced diversion of objects and symbols (eg the swastika or the dog collar worn by Sid Vicious and Siouxsie Sioux). This invention hijacking of a common object is common among many artists of the 1970s. Many artists have performed the diversion of items from Marcel Duchamp, Andy Warhol, the New Realists, Arte Povera, Caesar etc.. Regarding the safety pin, its misuse is attributed to various sources, by source, but its sources are unanimous on the first meaning they attribute in their initiator (such as musician or the punk scene) to causes and economic practices long before an aesthetic goal, both in punk are inseparable.
For some, it is Malcolm McLaren have taken the idea of Elli Medeiros Stinky Toys, which occurred at the time with safety pins on the trousers for others, McLaren have taken the idea to Richard Hell. For others, it is Vivienne Westwood's Sex shop who had the idea to accessorize the subject after seeing Johnny Rotten wearing patched clothing with. Anyway it will be the first designer to use the safety pin in fashion collections.
The first use of the object on the cover of a disc in 1977 with Richard Hell & the Voidoids 45 towers on the Blank Generation, where he posed with a torn shirt and patched with safety pins. The Lyon Starshooter used it on T-shirts.
It is also used by the graphic artist Jamie Reid in a collage made from a photograph by Cecil Beaton, where Queen Elizabeth II is one in the lip image have been used for the cover of God save the queen Sex Pistols in May 1977 but this version will be replaced by a visual considered less offensive by the record company (Virgin) and the image will not broadcast on the promotional posters and flyers announcing the 45 towers. It will be reissued in its original version in 2004 for a limited edition.
The use of the safety pin as a symbol of punk in 1977 is described as "the symbol of nothingness" by Lester Bangs.