Bollywood, Mumbai

Bollywood is the name given to the Indian film industry based in Mumbai (Bombay) and whose films are made in Hindi (and Urdu). This is the component most popular Indian cinema, the world's largest number of films. Bollywood films, broadcast throughout India, are exported worldwide, especially in the Maghreb, the Middle East and South-East Asia.

The term "Bollywood" is a portmanteau combining the original name "Bombay" - old name of the Indian city officially called Mumbai - and that of another symbol of the film industry, is American "Hollywood". It does not designate a specific place but rather a genre.

The first Indian film was Raja Harishchandra (1913, silent) by Dadasaheb Phalke's first film as sound system of India was Alam Ara (1931) Ardeshir Irani. The film (200 films / year), however, would slow in the years 1930-1940 after the Second World War and the Indian independence movement.

In 1937 qu'Ardeshir Irani directed the first color film in Hindi: Kisan Kanya, followed by Mother India (1938). Despite the success of these films, the color will take time to win before the 1950s. The actors were so popular Dev Anand, Dilip Kumar and Raj Kapoor and actresses Nargis, Meena Kumari, Nutan and Madhubala.

From the 1960s, melodramas and romances to leave room for action movies with actors like Rajesh Khanna and Dharmendra.

The years 1970-1980 saw many films appear black including Amitabh Bachchan, Mithun Chakraborty and Anil Kapoor and actresses Hema Malini, Jaya Bachchan and Rekha.

In the 1990s, romantic comedies and family take over the top like Hum Aapke Hain Kaun (1994) and Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge (1995) introducing a new generation of actors like Aamir Khan, Salman Khan, Shahrukh Khan, Govinda, Nana Patekar , Sunil Shetty and Akshay Kumar and actresses such as Sridevi, Madhuri Dixit, Juhi Chawla, Kajol, Raveena Tandon, Manisha Koirala and Karisma Kapoor.

The year 2000 is the world of Bollywood, which is no longer a simple second-home market, but adopting an international industry standard Western techniques. Big production houses like Yash Raj Films and Dharma Productions set out to conquer the world market with Lagaan, Devdas, Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham, Koi ... Mil Gaya, Kal Ho Naa Ho, Veer-Zaara, Rang De Basanti, Lage Raho Munnabhai, Krrish, Dhoom 2 Om Shanti Om with a new generation of actors like Hrithik Roshan and Abhishek Bachchan and Aishwarya Rai as actresses, Preity Zinta, Rani Mukherjee, Kareena Kapoor and Priyanka Chopra. From 2003 a new generation of actors appears Shahid Kapoor, Abhay Deol in Socha Na Tha 2005 with, Ranbir Kapoor in Saawariya 2007 with Neil Nitin Mukesh in 2007 with Johnny Gadar Imran Khan and most recently in 2008 revealed with Jaane You Ya Jaane Na among the new actresses Katrina Kaif in Maine Pyaar Kyun 2005 with Kya, Sonam Kapoor in 2007 with Saawariya, Deepika Padukone in Om Shanti Om in 2007 and recently Anushka Sharma in 2008 with Rab Bana Di Jodi Do.

The film, shot in Hindi, are similar to the movie musical genre, even the musical, and usually involve several music videos, sung and danced, one is careful and dare (item number). The music has its filmi composers in residence (such Rahul Dev Burman, Jatin Lalit, Anu Malik, Madan Mohan, Nadeem-Shravan and Allah Rakha Rahman) whose style is a mixture of Indian and Western music. It fits precisely the scenario, it is always pre-recorded by professional playback singers of popular (as Lata Mangeshkar, the queen of bollywood songs, her sister Asha Bhosle, Mukesh, Mohammed Rafi, Sunidhi Chauhan, Geeta Dutt Kishore Kumar, Udit Narayan, Sonu Nigam, Sukhwinder Singh, Kumar Sanu and Alka Yagnik and Shreya Ghoshal) and actors (such notable exceptions Kishore Kumar) who must be good dancers, can simply mimic the song because Indian cameras are too noisy. They are also professional singers who are post-synchronization of voice doubling times that of the hero or heroine, but a new trend with actors (who must interpret their roles twice: for the camera then to the microphone) singing their own parts sung like Aamir Khan in Ghulam, or a soundtrack recorded live (synchronous) on the set, as in Lagaan. The soundtrack is still produced and distributed before the shooting, which also depends on its success. There are scenes so often tours abroad to support these videos, the Swiss Alps or the beaches of the Seychelles are recurring themes, symbolizing the dreams and wealth. A new generation of singers back in play appeared in half of the decade 2000/2010, Atif Aslam, Mohit Chauhan, Shankar Mahadevan, Shaan, KK, Neeraj Shridar, Javed Ali, Tulsi Kumar, Alisha Chinoy.

The scenes of dances are derived from varieties of Indian dance: Kathak classical dance of courtesans tawaif, Bharata Natyam, Bhangra and folk dances. In the most recent films, the choreography has changed considerably now dances give way to modern Western dances (disco, salsa, Hip Hop, Break Dance). The choreographers themselves are also very popular as Saroj Khan, Farah Khan or Prabhu Deva, Shiamak Davar, Ganesh Hegde and Bosco Caesar and the success of a film often depends on their presence.

The hero or heroine never dance alone: there is always a band or a chorus of dancers and dancers accompanying them to create a mass effect, enhanced by a panoramic scope and a few extras are added, almost as an elements of the decor. These scenes are very careful and often require actors to change costumes or multiple places called picturisation.

The script and dialogues are written in Hindi course, the main language of northern India, or Hindustani, which is a mixture of Hindi and Urdu is widely spoken as in much of India North (sometimes in dialect for the villagers and Urdu for pure courtiers or poems, or finally in English or Punjabi and other Indian languages for certain phrases or exclamations as roles) or in Hinglish, a mixture of Hindi and English reflecting the modernization and globalization of the film. They depend on a writer usually different from the lyricist of songs. Sometimes a script is written in English first, then translated into Hindi, English being a lingua franca between Indians of different regions.

Many composers work with lyricists like Javed Akhtar registrants, Gulzar and Sameer. The songs are often inspired to be romantic themes from Hindu mythology (Krishna and Radha, or other figures), or the Mughal tradition of Urdu footprint Arab-Persian word.

The screenplays (like music) Bollywood are sometimes inspired by the success of those in Hollywood. Rather than take risks with an original work, some producers prefer an Indian adaptation of a theme already experienced by the box office. The budget savings have often led to sizeable plagiarism that covered the laxity of Indian laws and the absence of a written contract in this area. This propensity to copy was the more usual previously that most Indians knew nothing of music or films produced abroad, and many scenarios were reworked during filming. Some see it as an imponderable effect of globalization. It is indeed perhaps rather an attempt to get closer to the American way of life by marrying the same standards.

Read also india music history


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