Austria-Hungary is the name of a Central European state, consisting of the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary, joined by the family of Habsburg-Lorraine. The "Dual Monarchy" was created in 1867 by the "Austro-Hungarian Compromise" (German: Ausgleich, Hungarian: Kiegyezés). This state lasted until 1918.
The emperors of Austria are expelled from their traditional areas of influence, Italy (1860) and Germany (1866): they are discharged to the east. Their new political project is to combine the power of the Magyar aristocracy to strengthen their base in Central Europe. Simultaneously, this project would satisfy the Hungarian nobility in perpetuating feudal ties that remain in this country.
In 1867, Francis Joseph I, Emperor of Austria, was crowned king of Hungary.
Autocratic conservative, not devoid of pragmatism, it maintains the cohesion of the multinational state of the pillars of monarchy (and its bureaucracy), the Catholic Church, the army and the aristocracy.
The "Dual Monarchy" is a term that Austria-Hungary has its own. The double-headed eagle is a symbol long before the formation of the double monarchy, but it fits perfectly. It also uses the term "Danube Monarchy".
The two parts of the Empire are separated by a tributary of the Danube, Leitha, the Austrian being Cisleithania ("below the Leitha") and the Hungarian Transleithania ("beyond the Leitha) .
The First World War, triggered by an ultimatum from Austria-Hungary to the Kingdom of Serbia, the death knell of the empire did not survive his defeat. The majority decisions of the representative assemblies of the people, formed during and following the defeat in Europe proclaiming the "right of peoples to self-determination" as "14 points" of U.S. President Woodrow Wilson, replace the "Double Monarchy "by September" United Nations ". Some are newly independent: Poland and Czechoslovakia, the latter referring to the historic Great Moravia. Others are simply enlarged at the expense of the Empire: the Kingdom of Italy, the Kingdom of Romania and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. Austria itself becomes a republic, with the ban be linked to Germany, while Hungary, after the interlude of republican and revolutionary Béla Kun, remains officially a kingdom, whose head is an established Regency.
The genesis of a monarchy: the Habsburgs in Central Europe
The official name of Austria-Hungary in 1867 but appears to mean a State which was already in the first half of the eighteenth century. This is the last political form that have been taken the possessions of the imperial dynasty of Habsburg-Lorraine. This includes in fact several state entities. On the one hand the crown of Hungary includes the Kingdom of Hungary proper, established in 1000 and restored in 1699 during the reconquest of Hungary to the Ottoman Empire, and his two vassals: the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia and the archduchy Transylvania. On the other hand, a whole Austro-Bohemian dating from 1526, was consolidated during the Thirty Years War (1618-1648) and Austrian Succession (1740-1748) and expanded the Galicia-Lodomeria taken to Poland 1772, the Moldovan Bucovina previously ceded by the Ottoman Empire in 1775 and the Venetian Dalmatia previously ceded by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1797. This second set is the basis for the creation of the Austrian Empire in 1804.
The compromise of 1867
After the defeat of Sadowa in 1866 against Prussia, the federal options to six (Austria, Bohemia, Galicia, Hungary, Croatia and Transylvania) or three (Austria, Hungary, Croatia) are abandoned and in 1867, Empire Austria becomes a "dual monarchy" (Imperial and Royal) bringing the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary. Accept this compromise because Francois-Joseph by the Hungarians, and he was solemnly crowned king of Hungary in Budapest. The compromise was negotiated in 1867 between Beust, chairman of the Austrian Empire, and Andrassy, chairman of Kingdom of Hungary, one of the heroes of the independence war of 1848-1849. Thus we have in place institutions that lasts until 1918. In this context, are distinguished what are called the "common affairs" (war, military, diplomacy, finance for these positions, and from 1878, government of Bosnia-Herzegovina) and business to solve a agreement (including the settlement between the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary should be shared, "according to the translation of the text, 1867): Central Bank, currency, trade policy, railways , posts and telegraphs. In addition, the participation of each entity to the joint budget is the subject of renegotiation decadal compromise.
Cases on both sides of the monarchy are locked at sessions of representatives of both parliaments. These representatives of chambers Austrian and Hungarian delegations say, are elected by their respective chambers, which causes problems. Indeed, in the Austrian Empire, nationalities are represented in the delegation, which reduces the influence of political parties strictly in favor of the nationalists, each nationality wanting to have the maximum number of delegates and practicing sometimes for filibuster achieve its ends. Within the Kingdom of Hungary, however, political parties represented in parliament Magyar Hungarian in the Hungarian delegation, which avoids endless bickering parliamentarians, but largely excluding non-Magyar populations (nearly half the inhabitants of the kingdom), and leaving the spotlight to the aristocracy because of the vote census.
To compromise the Austro-Hungarian adds a compromise between the Kingdom of Hungary and the Kingdom of Croatia, signed in 1868. This compromise appears to maintain the personal union of Croatia with the Kingdom of Hungary, established since 1102, but it is a fiction because in reality, Croatia, as Transylvania, is fully integrated institutionally, economically and politically to the Kingdom of Hungary .
The system arose from the compromise of 1867 is an attempt to synthesize a state government (Bundesstaat) and a federation of states (Staatenbund), the statesmen of both sides of the monarchy developing different readings: for leaders of the Austrian Empire that it can not be a federal state, each of the two federated states having only relative autonomy on the contrary, for the Hungarians, even in the eyes of those who negotiated the compromise and support the Party (1867), the evolution of the dual system should lead to greater autonomy of the kingdom of Hungary, or even what is called the "personal union": two independent states having in common only the monarch. In this perspective, leaders Magyar, 1867 based on nationalist ideas of 1848, developed around Kossuth father and son, to extract the maximum concessions to Austria. Ten renegotiate the compromise is no problem in 1877 and 1887. In 1897, the political crisis in Austria requires an extension of the Agreement of 1887 for 3 years. Then an agreement was reached in 1900, valid until 1907. In 1907, negotiations led to the creation of two independent states associated with the nationalist Hungarian party in 1848 seeking a strict reading of the text of 1867, and not jointly manage the common affairs. In 1917, the Compromise of 1907 was extended until the peace but was denounced by the Hungarians from November 6, 1918.
If the Austro-Hungarian agreement, giving rise to the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary, balances the role of Hungary (Transleithania) from the Austrian Empire (Cisleithania), it will have the effect of marginalizing and up against the dynasty other peoples of the Empire (including Slavs, Italians and Romanians). Croatia and Transylvania are part of historic Hungary, who practices a policy of centralization and assimilation, suppressing the autonomy. Dalmatia, Mediterranean coast of the Empire, Bohemia, Galicia and Bukovina remain Austrian: Vienna is a small practice policy of Germanization however hampering the aspirations of local people in development in their languages and cultures. Austria-Hungary becomes a part of his subjects a "prison of peoples".
The emperors of Austria and Kings of Hungary were:
* 1867-1916: Francis Joseph, married to Elizabeth of Bavaria (the famous "Sissi");
* 1916-1918: Charles I Emperor of Austria and Charles IV as King of Hungary, great-nephew of married Zita of Bourbon-Parma.
The dual monarchy in 1910
The Empire of Austria-Hungary is the second largest state in Europe by area. It consists of the Austrian Empire (reduced to Cisleithania), the Kingdom of Hungary and Bosnia-Herzegovina, which is attached to neither one nor the other, but placed under joint administration in 1878 by the Treaty of Berlin, and annexed in 1908).
The empire in 1910 includes the following regions (shown here with their date of attachment to the empire and their current situations approximate):
* Attached to the Kingdom of Bohemia in Austria since 1526 (western Czech Republic);
* Moravia since 1526 linked to Austria (eastern Czech Republic);
* The Kingdom of Hungary in personal union under the Habsburgs since 1526 (Western Hungary, Slovakia, Northern Croatia ...), 1699 (Central Hungary, North-western Romania) and 1718 (northern Serbia, western Romania );
* Banat attached since 1718 to the Kingdom of Hungary (north-east of Belgrade, now divided between Serbia and Romania);
* Bosnia-Herzegovina (ditto) military occupation in 1878, annexed in 1908;
* Attached to the Duchy of Bukovina to Austria since 1775 (western Ukraine and north-eastern Romania);
* Galicia attached to Austria since 1772 (South-eastern Poland and western Ukraine);
* Region Inn, attached to Austria since 1779 (western Austria);
* South West of Istria and the Kingdom of Dalmatia attached to Austria since 1797 (most of the current Croatian Adriatic coast);
* The Duchy of Salzburg archdiocese-linked since 1805 to Austria (Center of Austria);
* The Principality of Transylvania in personal union under the Habsburgs since 1699, part of the Kingdom of Hungary since 1867 (Western Romania);
* Trentino, attached to Austria since 1803 (Northern Italy);
* Trieste, Slovenia and north-east of Istria, linked since 1282 to Austria (Northern Italy, Slovenia and western Croatia).
See also Zulu