The Zulus are a people of Southern Africa partly sedentary, this ethnic group is in South Africa.

The Zulu people (its name comes from the expression Ama Zulu people of heaven) was unified by King Shaka, who made his clan of 1500 people a formidable nation through conquest and assimilation. Unification Zulu is partly responsible for mfecane, the chaotic wave of emigration of clans beyond the Tugela and Pongola rivers, new boundaries of KwaZulu.

Known for their powerful army (the impi), clashed with the Zulu and Boer settlers from the British Army in the nineteenth century (note the Zulu victory at the Battle of Isandhlwana during the Anglo-Zulu War of 1879). Most farmers today are the Zulus, but urbanization has attracted large numbers during the twentieth century. The Zulus are found mostly in urban Witwatersrand mining area in Gauteng province including Johannesburg and Durban (the Zulu name eThekwini is), an important port of KwaZulu-Natal. Basketry, beading, and Zulu songs are famous.

Politically, the Zulus are now deeply divided between supporters of the African National Congress (ANC) and those of Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP). Violent riots broke out between the parties pending the first election of the post-apartheid. The IFP's taken in KwaZulu-Natal, but its vote is down slightly in recent elections. In recent years the IFP joined a unity coalition with the ANC.

The homeland of the Zulus seems to be in the region of modern Tanzania. Their presence in South Africa dates back to the fourteenth century. Just as the Xhosa, who settled in South Africa during the previous waves of migration Bantu, Zulu has assimilated many sounds from the Khoi and San languages, those of the early inhabitants of the country. As a result, Zulu and Xhosa have preserved many consonants clicks (sounds only to be found in South Africa), despite the extinction of many languages Khoi and San.

Zulu, like all indigenous languages of South Africa, was an oral language until the arrival of European missionaries, who transcribed using the Latin alphabet. The first document was a Zulu translation of the Bible, published in 1883. In 1901, John Dube, a Zulu Natal, created the Ohlange Institute, the first institution native South Africa.

The Zulu were originally a minor clan, founded in 1709 by Zulu kaNtombhela, in what is now KwaZulu-Natal. They belong to the Nguni group that occupied the region. The Nguni have migrated from the east coast of Africa and settled in South Africa around 800 AD.

The Zulu Kingdom
The Zulus in 1816 created a powerful kingdom under Shaka conqueror who, like his predecessors with a broad power over the tribe, led the army of the powerful Empire Mweta, takes over from his mentor and Dingiswayo is a confederation of tribe heterogeneous empire under Zulu hegemony.

War against the English
On December 11, 1878, the British delivered an ultimatum to 14 chiefs representing Cetshwayo. The terms of the ultimatum were unacceptable from the standpoint of the Zulu king. British forces crossed the river Thukela at the end of December 1878. On January 22, 1879, the Zulus defeated the British at the Battle of Isandhlwana but they were severely defeated in turn the following day at Rorke's Drift. The war finally ended in the defeat Zulu July 4, 1879 after great difficulties for the British, the Zulu army is revealing tenacious.

After the capture of Cetshwayo one month after the defeat, the British divided the Zulu kingdom into 13. These small kingdoms fighting until 1883 Cetshwayo was reinstated as king of Zululand. The fighting did not cease and the king was forced to flee his territory Zibhebhu, one of the thirteen kings, supported by Boer mercenaries. Cetshwayo died in February 1884, perhaps poisoned, and his son fifteen years Dinuzulu, succeeds him. The wars continued for years, until the final absorption of Zululand in the Cape Colony.

The KwaZulu Bantustan
Under apartheid, the Bantustan of KwaZulu (Kwa meaning earth) was created in 1970 under the name of Zululand (it took its current name in 1977). It was anticipated that all Zulus would become citizens of KwaZulu, losing their South African citizenship. The country was created and composed of a multitude of scattered lands. Hundreds of thousands of Zulu people living outside of KwaZulu were dispossessed and were forcibly displaced in poorer lands. In 1993, approximately 5.2 million Zulu people lived in KwaZulu, and approximately 2 million in the rest of South Africa. The Chief Minister of KwaZulu, from its inception in 1970 until 1994, Mangosuthu Buthelezi. In 1994, the province of KwaZulu Natal was attached to, forming now, KwaZulu-Natal.

Inkatha Freedom Party
In 1975, Buthelezi revived the Inkatha YaKwaZulu, predecessor of the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP or). This organization was nominally a protest movement against apartheid, but more conservative than the ANC. For example, Inkatha was opposed to armed struggle and sanctions against South Africa. Inkatha was initially on good terms with the ANC, but the two organizations came into increasing conflict in 1979 after riots in Soweto.

Because of its position more and more supportive of the apartheid government, Inkatha was the only major organization recognized as representing the views of black South Africans by the apartheid government: the ANC and other movements were banned. Unlike the leaders of Transkei, Ciskei, Bophuthatswana and Venda, Buthelezi never accepted the pseudo-independence offered at the policy Separate Development, despite strong pressure from the white government.

The Zulu language is Zulu (or "isiZulu, a Bantu language (more exactly, a Nguni subgroup. Zulu is the language most spoken in South Africa where she is an official language. More than half the population can understand, with over 9 million people whose mother tongue was more than 15 million who speak it fluently. Many Zulus also speak English, Portuguese, Tsonga ,, Sotho and other languages of South Africa.

Siyahamba (South Africa, Zulu traditional song). Some argue that the Zulus have developed a vocal tradition extraordinary because, for lack of large trees, they could not make instruments(?). This tradition has evolved to include religious songs for four voices brought by European colonizers. Siyahamba part in the course of a cappella songs of devotion. His words mean: "We walk in the light of God."

The Zulu music and dance were broadcast worldwide thanks to covers of traditional songs (like the lion sleeps tonight) and international artist Johnny Clegg.

See also Hip-hop


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