Kingdom of Judah
The kingdom is a kingdom of Judah ancient Near East. According to tradition, there existed from -931. His disappearance comes at -587 in a campaign against Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar II.
The kingdom of Judah would have appeared when King Solomon, son of King David, died in -931. A schism broke out then. Ten tribes of Israel gather in the north to form the new kingdom of Israel under Jeroboam while the tribes of Judah and Benjamin form the south around Jerusalem a kingdom of Judah, the more homogeneous (especially on the religious ) that the kingdom of Israel. Much of the Levites in the Temple of Jerusalem consecrated also join the kingdom of Judah. The Kingdom of Judah are -931 -587 until, when the Babylonian King Nebuchadnezzar destroyed Jerusalem.
According to archeological research, the early Israelites are not yet organized into a centralized kingdom, the first centralized kingdom attested by archeology is that Omri founded the kingdom of Israel. Neither the existence nor that of Saul Solomon are attested by archeology. The existence of David is not witnessed in his lifetime, but it is attested as founder of the House of David dynasty different from the house of Omri.
Of -931 to -612
According to the Bible, the kingdom said the South remains committed to the teaching of the Torah its northern neighbor, the Kingdom of Israel. The presence of the Temple of Jerusalem his capital is tied to keeping the faith, despite some periods where kings have promoted idolatry and corruption in the territory. Assyria destroyed the northern kingdom in -722 and deported its population. Judah defeats.
Of -612 to -605
In -612, the Assyrian capital, Nineveh was destroyed by two new regional powers: Chaldea and Media, united under the banner Babylonian. Egypt has set its sights on Syria and Samaria. Judah is thus wedged between the big three then. King Josiah died in battle against Pharaoh Necho II -608. Yoachaz, son of Josiah, became king instead of his father in Jerusalem.
Of -605 to -588
In -605, the Battle of Carchemish between Egypt to Babylon. King Nebuchadnezzar II and continuing through the Judean troops of Pharaoh. Judea became a vassal of the Chaldees. The kingdom's population is divided between supporters of Egypt and Babylon. King Nebuchadnezzar Joaïakim stands against and died in combat in -598. The Babylonians deported the elite of the population and the kingdom appears very weak. A revolt fails -593. In -589, despite the warnings of the prophet Jeremiah, King Zedekiah of Judah allied with the military coalition led by Egypt against Chaldea, refuses to pay the tribute imposed and reiterates the country's independence.
Exile and destruction of the kingdom
In response, Nebuchadnezzar invaded Judah. The siege of Jerusalem began on 10 Tevet (Hebrew calendar) of the year -587. The people of the city is hungry for the seat. On 17 Tammuz of the year -586, a breach is made in the wall of the Temple and the city was looted. Av 9, -586, Babylonian soldiers burned the Temple and city buildings. The kingdom was destroyed and its entire population was deported to different parts of the Babylonian empire.
See also Nefertiti Egypt