Paper (of französ.: Papier from Greek πάπυρος, pápyros, "papyrus Perennial) is a material that is used primarily to describe in print and is used mostly from plant fibers. Other important applications include packaging (cardboard, cardboard), tissue paper (such as toilet paper) and specialty papers (eg wallpaper). Today, in the paper from pulp or wood material (pulp). Recycled paper in the form of waste paper is now a major source of raw materials in Europe,

Normally, as paper thin substrate used, it can also cause massive objects, such as paper, shaped. In Japan and China will paper in the interior decoration diverse uses, such as the Japanese Shoji, of transparent Washi paper stringed room divider.

Cave drawings are the oldest documents, the man with pigment color to a background drawn. The Sumerer, the carriers of the oldest known high culture, wrote since about 3200 BC with cuneiform on soft clay tablets, some of which have survived to this day, because they were burned by coincidences. Also from Egypt are heading makers from inorganic materials known, for example, the showpiece of King Narmer Palette (3100 BC) from soapstone.

Papyrus consists of the flat beaten, and laid crosswise pressed stems of the total Nile lower in quiet shore zones growing reed plant (Cyperus papyrus). It was written in black and red paint. The black ink consisted of soot, and a solution of gum, the red ochre paint was on base. The writer was a brush rushes. Although there were papyrus in ancient Greece, however, was a proliferation of Greece, hardly known. In the 3rd Century, the Greeks replaced the brush by a split pipe spring. From the Greek word pápyros derives from the word paper.

The Roman Empire was both papyrus and wax boards used in the latter, the text using a angespitzten Stöckchens geritzt. With a scraper was smoothed and re-wax the board again. Public announcements were most often an inscription at temples or government buildings appropriate. In India were sheets of Palmengewächsen and China plates from bones, shells, ivory, use. Later, the panels consisted of inorganic material, such as bronze, iron, gold, silver, tin, jade, stone and clay, as well as from organic materials, such as wood, bamboo and silk strips. By contrast, plant leaves and animal skins are not used as a writing medium. The oracle bones were Griffeln geritzt or with ink from lampblack and cinnabar labeled. In medieval Europe was parchment, a manufactured from animal skins writing materials, use.

Invention of paper
The invention of paper is attributed Tsai Lun. He was around 105 AD (document date of the first mention of the Chinese paper-making method) of Chinese arable Minister and described for the first time today known procedure, paper. [1] his time there was a papierartigen Beschreibstoff, which made silk waste produced (Chi ). This mixed early paper makers still old rags and fish nets, and supplemented it with bark of the mulberry tree. [2] The Chinese invention consisted primarily in the novel Preparation: The cleaned fibres and fibre remains were bruises, cooked and watered. Subsequently, individual situations with a sieve off, dried, pressed and smoothed, and the resulting pulp fibers from plants is stored as fleece and formed a relatively homogeneous sheet of paper.

Since Bast is a material that is in comparison to the wood used today extended fibers and thus a high temporal durability has been the paper of Ts'ai Lun not only used for writing, but also for room decorations in the form of wallpaper and clothing. The use of Maulbeerbast was close, as the Seidenspinner from the leaves of the mulberry tree fed this material, and thus a co-product from the production of silk. How old the use of Bast, proves the glacier Iceman mummy (about 3,300 BC), the garments from lime.

In the new world, a papierähnlicher Beschreibstoff the 5th Century AD. By the Maya. However, this material, the manufacture, rather related to the papyrus, because it is made from cross verpressten Baststrängen, but not from open-minded individual fibers. Even that for the paper definition essential important, dewatering process is not yet on a sieve through mechanical dehydration. In this respect, it would be wrong of an invention of a paper in America to speak. The effective and independent Urherstellung of paper can only be for Europe and Asia demonstrate.

Asia and Oceania
Already in 2nd Century existed in China paper handkerchiefs. In the 6th Century, one toilet paper from billigstem rice straw paper. Alone in Beijing a year has been 10 million packets of 1000 to 10,000 sheets produced. The waste straw and lime formed soon large hill, elephants Mountains. For purposes of the Chinese Imperial Court, the imperial workshop 720,000 leaf toilet paper. For the imperial family were once 15,000 leaf yellow, soft and scented paper. What is known is that around the year 300 Thais to the technique of floating sieve used for paper production in about the year 600 of the technology Schöpfsiebs in Korea and around 625 in Japan were used. The official robe of Japanese Shinto priest, to the aristocratic garb of Heian-period decline, consists of a white paper (washi), which mainly from mulberry tree bark.

Emperor Gaozong (650 to 683, Tang dynasty) was the first paper money to spend. It was triggered by a shortage of copper for the minting. Since 10 Century had bank notes in the Song Dynasty enforced. From about 1300, they were in Japan, Persia and India in circulation, and from 1396 in Vietnam under Emperor Tran Thuan Tong (1388-1398).

In the year 1298 Marco Polo reported on the proliferation of paper money in China, where it is at this time, an inflation was that the value to about 1% of the original value dropped. In the year 1425, the paper money but abandoned, in order to stop inflation. To bring in circulation of counterfeit money more difficult, paper money has been temporarily from a special paper made, which supplements to silk fibers, dyes and insecticides contained.

Arab World
When exactly the first paper in the Arab world, is controversial. To date, as 750 or 751, as probably with a Chinese border captured the technique of paper production have brought to Samarkand. Furthermore, there is evidence that led to the assumption that in Samarkand already 100 years earlier paper was known, and also made. As commodity paper used to flax and hemp. Soon, the Arabs had a thriving paper industry. In Baghdad was built around 795 a paper mill, where 870 appeared for the first paper book. Paper transactions were scientific and literary centres, teachers and writers were operated. The House of Wisdom was not coincidental at this time in Baghdad. In the offices of the Caliph Harun ar-Rashid was written on paper. It followed paper workshops in Damascus, Cairo, in the North African provinces to the west. The Arabs developed the production technology. The creator of metal wire sieve allowed now, watermarks should be used. By using strength, the sizing (thin coating to paper smoother and less absorbent to make the ink or ink is less strong) significantly improved. Standardized square measures were introduced. 500 Arch were a bunch (rizma), which today still in the paper industry standard term Ries back. From 8 Until 13 Century took the high heyday of the Islamic empire. As a Baghdad cultural centre attracted artists, philosophers and scientists, particularly Christians and Jews from Syria.

About the cultural contact between the Christian West and the Arab and Islamic Orient Spain reached the writing material since 12 Century to Europe. In San Felipe (Xativa) at Valencia gave it a travel report by Al-Idrisi already in the middle of the 12th Century, a thriving paper industry, which is also in the neighbouring countries exporting quality products. Even after the expulsion of the Arabs from Spain remained the area around Valencia important for the paper industry, as there is a lot of flax (linen) has grown, which is a good raw material for paper production.

With the spread of writing in ever more areas of culture (economic, legal, administrative, etc.) joined the parchment paper over since the 14th His triumphant century. With printing cheaper on paper since the mid-15th Century was the role of Pergaments as a pure luxury writing material sealed. However, it took until the 17th Century, the paper until the comparatively expensive parchment as Beschreibstoff finally ousted.

Chronology: beginnings of the paper-making in European countries
Spain 1100: San Felipe at Valencia
1109 Sicily oldest document written on paper
1225 France's oldest paper document
1228 Emperor Frederick II is the oldest on the German soil remaining letter from paper to the nunnery Göss in Austria. The mandate is now in the house, court and state archives in Vienna.
Before 1231 paper mill in Amalfi (uncertain)
For 1231 deeds Emperor Frederick II prohibits the use of paper
According to the 1236 statutes Padua documents are on paper without legal force
1246 The register book of the Passauers Dechanten Behaim Italian paper is the oldest German paper handwriting
In Italy, 1268 paper (paper mill in Fabriano at Ancona)
1282 invention of the watermark in Bologna
1283 Paper Mill in Treviso
1293 Paper Mill in Bologna
1389 Germany's first paper mill, the track was millstone of Ulman Stromer founded in Nuremberg (see below).
1393 Other paper mills in Germany followed: 1393 Ravensburg, 1398 Chemnitz, 1407 Augsburg, 1415 Strasbourg, 1420 Luebeck, 1460 Wartenfels, 1468 Kempten. By the end of the 16th Century, there were about 190 paper mills in Germany.
FR 1411 Marly in Switzerland
1469 St. Poelten in Austria
1494 Stevenage in England
1573 Klippan in Sweden
1576 Moscow in Russia
Dordrecht in the Netherlands 1586


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