Charlie Chaplin (Charlie Chaplin), whose real name was Sir Charles Spencer Chaplin, Jr., is an actor, director, producer and screenwriter burlesque British born in London, in a poor neighbourhood in the south of the city, on April 16, 1889, and died Dec. 25, 1977 in Vevey, Switzerland. By his game mime and clownery, he has to be pointed out, and become one of the most famous children of the ball in the Hollywood cinema. He greatly influenced other performers in the world of cinema.
Charlie Chaplin was one of the most creative people in the era of silent films. He has been able to engage in his films, his game, his achievement, his script, production, assembly, and even its membership! His career lasted more than sixty-five years, the music hall in England, until his death in Switzerland.
Her character Charlot, The Tramp (vagabond) in the Anglo-Saxon countries, appeared for the first time in Kid Auto Races at Venice on Feb. 7, 1914. It is a vagrant who has refined manners and worthy of a gentleman wearing a bowler hat, wearing a jacket along with narrow trousers falling and carrying a bamboo cane flexible. This pace will be worth it a reputation for "vagrants" miserable and beaten, asocial and stubborn, rebellious and sentimental.
He was strongly inspired by the burlesque french actor Max Linder: both chose a suit of their own. But Max Linder, unlike Charlie Chaplin, will not be represented as a victim of society. The public and private life of Charlie Chaplin will be the subject of adulation as controversial.
Children and the first steps
Born in East Lane in the district of Walworth, a very poor district of London, on April 16, 1889, four days before Adolf Hitler, Charles Spencer Chaplin is the son of Charles Chaplin and Hannah Hill (known as Harley scene Lili), both artists music hall. He was baptized in the Church of England, but it was later agnostic. There is only one year when her father went on tour in the United States. It will then have several half-brothers, one older than him (Sydney Chaplin, in 1885 from a relationship with Sydney Hawkes), the other more jeunette (Wheeler Dryden was born in 1892 and whose father Leo Dryden and he the same musician father Spencer Dryden). When he returned from the United States, senior Chaplin discovered the new situation and abandons his family, Charles Spencer had whereas three years. The misery at home settles Hannah, suffers from mental illness, is committed to a mental hospital in June 1894. Charlie and his brothers were placed in an orphanage, in Hanwell. Two months later, the mother of Chaplin received his discharge from the hospital. A few years later, Hannah will again admitted to the hospital and stay there, this time, eight months. Meanwhile, Charlie lived with his father and stepmother alcoholic, in an untenable environment for a child, whose memories inspire The Kid.
At 5 years, Chaplin climbed on stage to replace his mother who could no longer sing. Then, in 1896, his father, no longer commitment, in the dark alcoholism before dying in the street, at the age of 37, a liver cirrhosis
Charlie's brother, Sydney, leaves the parental home to work in navigation. Charles Spencer was alone with his parents. But this "abandonment" that will finally open the door for Charlie to the world of theatre. Between nine and twelve years, it was thanks to his brother that Charlie embarked on a career as a child of the ball in the troupe of Eight Lancashire Lads . He will meet at the same time the young Stan Laurel. Then he received from 1903 a succession of contracts to the theatre, and in 1908 he was hired in the Fred Karno troupe, then the largest entertainment impresario with sketches. During a tour of the troupe in America, the company Keystone submitted a contract proposal that he agrees: the adventure of the ballet begins.
The dances of the day were quick and movies set box in a few hours. Do not supporting the pressures caused by these very short time, Chaplin created the character of refined Charlot the vagabond, and refocuses its entire comedy around the new character and shape it opens in Charlot is proud of himself (1914). On that first appearance, the public and orders from distributors tributary. Unhappy labour directors, Chaplin took over, starting in June 1914, the staging of his films. The ascent was meteoric. His salary multiplies every year, it changes regularly studio. In 1916, he signed a contract for the distribution of one million dollars with First National, which leaves the production and ownership of eight films planned. He immediately built his own studio in which he made 9 films whose life of a dog, and The Kid Charlot soldier. In 1919, a wave of revolt blows on Hollywood where actors and filmmakers say they are not exploited; Chaplin then joins David Wark Griffith, Mary Pickford and Douglas Fairbanks will be founded United Artists. His first film for his new firm will be The Public Opinion (1923). Then Chaplin gradually enter his universe that comic melodrama and social reality as in The Gold Rush (1925).
The cinema speaking
Farouche opponent speaking, it introduces elements sound by minor adjustments. Lights of the City (1931) is the first film to benefit, but Chaplin did not diverted from its original draft silent film. To understand her refusal, he said that the filmmaker was a past master in the art of pantomime. The language of Charlot is solely based on gestures, and therefore a universal language. A movie dialogue has a hearing a little more limited because it contains the language barrier and Chaplin wants to please everyone. Critics accumulate. It is said eventually, like his friends David Wark Griffith, Mary Pickford and Douglas Fairbanks and many other stars of the silent who did not survive to speak. He began a long journey, which will last more than a year and a half, all over the world, especially in Europe, to present his film. He met most of the heads of state and prominent figures, including Albert Einstein. He was concerned about the economic situation, unemployment and social deprivation, he never forgot his. It combines all of this in Modern Times (1936), the last silent film in history and one of the most famous, if not the most famous of its author. He does a few scenes dialoguées, the bulk of remaining silent film. It proved to his detractors that he is still count with him and that the speaking is not a problem. After numerous jobs, Charlot is engaged in a restaurant. It must sing, but the paralyzing stage fright, he forgets his words. The character played by Paulette Goddard him the copy on its headlines. Unfortunately, when he took it sends valser its antisèches. It is a balance incomprehensible gobbledygook (a mixture of sounds French and Italian), with a pantomime that laughter assistance. Charlot doing with the language of clown. This film is also the final appearance on the screen Charlot. He also speaks of the difficulty of assembly-line work that makes crazy most employees, including him in this film, which took him to the psychiatric hospital.
Retranscription lyrics of the song Charlot in Les Temps Modernes:
"Getting piu satore bella, I catore our so,
I cavore our who, I only, which, dock!
The spinash or the busho, cigaretto toto bello,
This rakish spagoletto, if you, you, tua!
Senora pelefima, would you like taximeter,
The zionta on tita, you you you wa! "
In 1940, he filmed The Great Dictator. It responds by intermediary moustache, Hitler and protests against the dictatorship that plagues Europe. Hitler and Mussolini were ridiculed, and become Hynkel and Napoloni. The German ambassador to the United States lobbied to ban the shooting and everything Hollywood, fearing repercussions, asked Chaplin to abandon his plan. But the filmmaker receives support from President Franklin Roosevelt, which will invite a few weeks after the release of the film at the White House for him recite the final speech. The film is banned across the continent, but a rumor circulates: Hitler would have seen, with a private screening. In France, it would be released in 1946. This time, Chaplin is finally entered the era of cinema sound.
"Hope ... I am sorry, but I do not want to be emperor, this is not my business. I do not conquer, nor direct person. Let me help everyone to the extent possible, Jews, Christians and pagans, white and black. We would like to help us all if we could, human beings are like that. We want to give happiness to our neighbour, not give him the misfortune.
Each of us has a place and our land is rich enough, it can feed all human beings. We can all have a good life and freedom, but we have forgotten ... "
Speech by Jewish barber extract of Dictator (1940). The film showed both foresight you would think it was made after the Holocaust. The confusion was interviewed among others by the FBI, which began its reports as follows: "Israel Thonstein alias Charles Chaplin." In fact, the Who's Who of the American Jewish community had earlier claimed that Chaplin came from a family named Thonstein, emigrated from Eastern Europe and based in London since 1850.
In 1943, when he had to marry for the fourth time, he is a victim of a trial in recognition of his fatherhood brings actress Joan Berry and who pays the headlines. In 1946, Chaplin's film turns the hardest, Monsieur Verdoux. Orson Welles Chaplin offers a scenario based on the case Landru. Chaplin is the appropriate, rewrote the script to include a review of the world of post-war and its economic and social damage. To avoid any misunderstanding with Welles, who wrote the first draft of the screenplay, it proposes $ 5000 and his reference to generic. What the filmmaker, financial delicacy, agrees. Once again, Chaplin delivered a message tinged with cynicism but also humanism. In 1950, he sold nearly all of his shares to United Artists and works with the fires ramp where he describes the end of a sad clown in the London of his childhood. His own children appear as extras and Chaplin takes the lead role. The film was released in 1952 in London and is a triumph for its author. One of the most beautiful scenes of the film is near the end: Buster Keaton plays a pianist and a violinist Chaplin. But nothing goes as planned because Keaton has problems with his scores and his piano and Chaplin is struggling with the strings of her violin. Grand moment of comic burlesque with these two giants. Chaplin would even deleted scenes Keaton that would have been more comic than its own in the shooting. It should be noted that on the words of Jacques Larue, Chaplin who wrote the music for the song from the film "Two small slippers."
A victim of Maccarthisme (his name appears on the "black list"), he is harassed by the FBI because of his leftist views, it is denied a visa to return during his stay in Europe for the presentation of his film. He then waived his residence in the United States and installed his family in Switzerland until the end of his days. After receiving the International Award for Peace in 1954, he turned to London A King in New York (1957) where he ridicules the "witch hunt" conducted in America of the Cold War. In 1967, he directed his last film, in color, Countess of Hong Kong, with Sophia Loren, Marlon Brando and Tippi Hedren, whose action takes place on a boat, where it does a small role as that of a victim of evil steward of the sea.
uring 1970, the world will pay tribute to him: Special prize at the Cannes Film Festival in 1971 (Festival where Jacques Duhamel, then Minister of Cultural Affairs, made a Commander of the National Order of the Legion of Honour), Lion gold at the Venice Film Festival, knighting by the Queen of England, Oscar Special ... Fêté and adulated, Sir Charles Spencer Chaplin died on December 25, 1977. Beginning in March 1978, his grave was breached and his body was stolen. Many Ransom more or less crazy are addressed to the Chaplin family. The body of the film is found a few weeks later, and the two criminals who had kidnapped will be sentenced for attempted extortion.
Charlie Chaplin married Mildred Harris in 1918, Lita Grey in 1926, Paulette Goddard in 1936, all three of its partners on the screen, and Oona O'Neill, daughter of playwright Eugene O'Neill actor, in 1943.
His marriages have hit the headlines American, indeed it did 29 years old when he married Mildred Harris, who has 15, he 35 when he married Lita Grey who has 16 years and has 47 years when he convole with Paulette Goddard who was 22 and had 54 years during his marriage to Oona O'Neill who has 18. It will have eight children with his last wife.