A mosque (مسجد, masdschid, "place of prostration") is a ritual site of the Islamic prayer and beyond the political, legal and lebenspraktischen values within the meaning of Islam as well as a social meeting place. You can be a multi-purpose building, also a place for lessons and discussions, as well as a venue for the celebration of social occasions. In "The Prayer (As-Salah)" of Sahih Al-Buharyy mentions that the mosque as a training ground for the fight has been used. The mosque is not a Christian church compare only to the almost worship.
The basic construction of a mosque consists of a Betraum furniture and other items. The Betraum varies by region and climate shaped. Often the mosque is a yard or garden with a fountain or pond attached. It can be the other main buildings to be connected, so that creates a complex, social, cultural, religious and political life of a Muslim community.
The mosque has always served not only as a sacred building. How can a mosque and a school and Islamic University (madrasa), as a religious house, political assembly plant, poor kitchen, hospital, hostel and generally as a place of encounter commute.
The faithful enough as a rule, a clean place to worship them. A distinction between the simple prayer house or room, the Grand Mosque, which include several hundred worshippers, and the Friday Mosque (dschamic جامع), for the Friday sermon a pulpit and a certain size for the believers must have.
The German word "mosque" is derived from the Arab North African masdschid debate about its masgid, mesquita the Spanish and Italian moschea her. It is a collective term for all these different kinds mosque and institutions involved in the Arabic language their own names.
The oldest, still-born pre-term sacred structure of Islam is the Kaaba. According to the Islamic doctrine exists in heaven a model of Kaaba, which even before the creation of the earth existed. After the Fall Adam built a facility for worship God according to the same model. After several attempts reconstruction and expansion of buildings - the legend - anderemu Abraham was Muhammad's family even further reconstruction assistance. However, the Kaaba itself never model for the sacred architecture of Islam. Even the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, the first masterpiece of Islamic religious architecture, rarely served as a model.
As the first mosque in architekturhistorischen senses and as a model for all other mosques, the house of the Prophet Mohammed in Medina. Indeed, there are traditional Arab apartment buildings, a mosque innenarchitektonisch similar.
The Omayyaden Mosque in Damascus, one of the oldest mosques, recalls in iherer architecture strongly of a Christian church.
A mosque consists mainly of a Betraum. It extends the Muslim community a clean place to the joint worship them. The prayer room does not necessarily need to be covered or enclosed. The believer can be prayer also perform outdoors. The furnishings are elements of a mosque for the prayer is not indispensable. Only when the Friday prayers in mosques comes more larger furniture. However, there are regional differences. The elements are not as a sanctuary, but as a functional utility objects, the prayer solely by their use and function enrich.
The process of prayer is fixed; It looks different body postures, Bittgebete, praise and reciting from the Koran, the quiet man for himself aufsagt. At Community prayer directs the [Imam], the group and sometimes recites aloud. In the Islamic teachings replaced by the joint prayer but more important, what the institution is essential mosque.
The direction of prayer
Muslims pray towards the Kaaba. In space, which is always a prayer room, is the identification of prayer direction (arab. qibla) mandatory. It extends the significant highlight of the so-called Qibla wall. This can be a line or an arrow, or a plaque inscribed with the word "Qibla", inscriptions and other creative means, or even the prayer niche (mihrab arab.). The marking of the Qibla is the most important element of a mosque.
The prayer niche
The prayer niche has several functions. It indicates the direction of prayer, the imam find its place in front of the group and the Mihrab has an acoustic impact. The Imam is also lined the Qibla, with his back to the community. The semicircular niches or polygonal shape of the Mihrab, the loudest schallen recitations of the Imam in the prayer room, so that all believers the words of the Imam understand and follow the prayer. In times where there was no speaker gave was the Mihrab by his acoustic feature another important element. In addition, the Mihrab a symbolic significance. Since all believers in the world to turn to the Kaaba and all mosques a prayer niche, is the Mihrab an imaginary connection to the Kaaba and all other believers in the world.
In a mosque, there is often a umwehrte gallery (Dikkah). The Dikkah has the following features: One is that in this area the Muezzine, imams and rulers their place, on the other hand, from where the Adhan proclaimed in the mosque or the Qur'an recited. The Dikkah also serves the acoustics, so that all the faithful can hear the Adhan. In modern mosques and loudspeakers, the Dikkah only symbolic character. Nevertheless, they continue to serve as a traditional component and as a separate field of imams and scholars. The Dikkah, according to the relative size of the mosque, back or middle. Depending on the size of the mosque is the Dikkah either just 30 to 40 cm above the ground or even three meters higher.
The chair and the pulpit
The Imam is free, whether it before Community prayer from the Qur'an or the Hadith and recites the town in faith instructs. A sermon before the prayer is not required. Nevertheless, many imams follow the example of the Prophet Mohammed and preach at busy times. This sermon of the imam are often directed by a professor (Kursi). Originally, the Kursi a portable lectern as storage of the Koran and other religious literature. It developed into a rigid component: an elevated chair, on the Qibla wall, and on a staircase. Depending on the traffic flow can also several large mosques Kursi to the side wall or a pillar in the middle of the mosque. Although the sermon before the prayer is not binding, the presence of a Kursi as an element in mosques still mandatory. The elevated position of the Kursi is intended only to realize that all of sermon followed and the imam can see. The small, mobile Kursi still serve as a book shelf, especially if the mosque in a religious school integrated and children in Islam and the Qur'an recitation teaches.
During Friday prayers, and the two holidays is a sermon (Khutba) by the Imam from the pulpit (Minbar). This makes the Minbar Friday in a mosque at an indispensable element. The Minbar is on the Qibla wall, the right of the Mihrab always appropriate, and is head of a staircase. The Khutba is standing by Imam held on the staircase. The original Early Minbar had three stages. Of importance is that the Prophet Mohammed always of the third stage from preached. Has always been the ultimate stage of the Prophet Minbar reserved, the imam preaches from the second stage. Even the Minbar serves to better acoustics and overview. The number of stages of the Minbar depends on the original form, should be at least three steps, but always a multiple of the number three. The bigger the mosque, the higher should be the Minbar.