Pyramids of Egypt
Pyramids of Egypt
Of all the monumental remains that we have inherited the ancient Egyptians, the pyramids, including the three great pyramids of Giza, are both the most impressive and the most emblematic of this civilization.
Tombs of the Kings, queens, and leading figures from the State whose building dates back to the vast majority at the very beginning of ancient Egypt, the pyramid-shaped stone hosting one or more internal rooms connected by corridors.
The Great Pyramid of Giza, built by Khéops, is one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.
Des mastabas to pyramids
Mastaba, quasi-rectangular construction, was the burial of rulers of the Old Empire.
The reasons for the passage of mastabas the pyramids are not clearly established, but it generally refers to the desire to achieve the heights of increasingly important to demonstrate the importance and power of the deceased pharaoh. The first mastabas, single floor, firstly mastabas evolved into two floors to accommodate new structures funeral, the second floor is less broad and less high than the first.
With the beginning of the Third Dynasty (about -2700 to -2600), mastabas became pyramids tell degrees, which consists of several tiers with the overall shape of a giant "staircase" rising skyward. The first and most famous of these pyramids with degrees east of the pyramid at Saqqara Djéser, which was the architect Imhotep. Imhotep wanted to erect a pyramid, in sum, like a gigantic staircase, to the sky to symbolize the ascent of the deceased "Underworld" to "heaven".
The next step in the evolution of the pyramids degrees to the building was by King Snéfrou of a pyramid called rhomboid on the site of Dahshur. Rhomboid The pyramid is an intermediate step between the pyramid, in and smooth-sided pyramid. The pyramid is a pyramid rhomboid whose faces are a smooth slope sections inclinations towards decreasing the summit. The non-uniformity of the slope could be explained by architectural difficulties vis-à-vis the stability of the pyramid (original slope too steep) or its method of construction (routing blocks up to a certain height…) difficulties in supply (career workforce, geopolitical situation), or a geometric voluntary.
This type of pyramid is the last step leading to the final stage of the evolution of the pyramids in Egypt to the pyramids with smooth faces of the Fourth Dynasty (-2573 -2454); among the most famous are the pyramids of Khéops , Khéphren and Mykérinos at Giza in Cairo.
The pyramids show for their time, the general knowledge of Egyptian engineers able to reach such monuments with very rudimentary. There are many theories about the method of construction of the pyramids in Egypt but specialists generally agree on many points.
Most of the stones were cut in quarries near the construction site. Others were imported from the south with huge rafts. The blocks were then placed on sleds and carried to the force of arms to their location.
The mysteries and fantasies
Traditionally, these huge stone buildings have excited the imagination of people. The main reason may be the fact that rarely in the history of humanity, the elements that allowed their buildings do meet again: a theocratic power Almighty, a country rich and prosperous, a hand-d ' large pool, an administration highly developed and a large empirical knowledge. In these circumstances, it is more rewarding to contemplate civilizations that these "wonders," to give it extra-ordinary origin to admit its own limitations.
The nascent Egyptology nineteenth century posing more questions she could not provide answers, myths modern quickly filled the holes she had left. It will take many years to Egyptologists to break down these myths one by one, but nonetheless, they are still much alive in contemporary culture.
What remains of "mysteries" are only questions not yet having answers unanimous. These include: whether or not there are hidden chambers in the pyramid Khéops (with the "treasures" they may contain), the protocol exact construction of the pyramids (if indeed it was unique), the period Exact construction, or the symbolism of these monuments in the eyes of their builders.
Some Egyptologists (as Selim Hassan) or archaeological astronomers (as Robert Bauval) offer a theory that there was a correlation between the position and orientation of the pyramids of Giza and the position of stars including the constellation Orion.
The largest pyramids of Egypt
The ranking below uses as a reference the length of the base of the pyramid.
1. Pyramid Khéops (IVth dynasty): 230 m;
2. Red Pyramid, Snéfrou (IVth dynasty): 219 m;
3. Pyramid Khéphren (IVth dynasty): 215 m;
4. Pyramid rhomboid, Snéfrou (IVth dynasty): 189 m;
5. Meidum, Snéfrou (IVth dynasty): 144 m;
6. Pyramid Djéser (Third dynasty): 123 x 107 m;
7. Sékhemkhet (Third dynasty): 119 m;
8. Pyramid Djédefrê (IVth dynasty): 105 m;
9. Pyramid Néferirkarê (Fifth Dynasty): 105 m;
10. Pyramid of Senusret I (Twelfth dynasty): 105 m.
The pyramidion: tip of the pyramid (or an obelisk), it is usually carved out of granite and covered with gold.
The study (and fantasy) Pyramid has produced a quantity of books which here is a non-exhaustive list:
* Jean-Philippe Lauer, The mystery of the pyramids, Presses de la Cité, 1988. ;
* Georges Goyon, The secret of the builders of the great pyramids, Pygmalion, 1990. ;
* Gilles Dormion and J.P. Goidin, New mysteries of the Great Pyramid, Albin Michel, 1987. ;
* Gilles Dormion and J.P. Goidin, New Khéops investigation, ERC, 1986. ;
* Christian Jacq The trip to the pyramids, Perrin, 1989. ;
* Otto Muck, and the great Cheops pyramid, Payot. ;
* G. Cantu, The mystery of the pyramids, De Vechi, 1977. ;
* Guy Gruais and Guy Mouny, The great secret of the pyramids of Guiseh, The Rock, 1992 (ISBN 2-268-01329-4). ;
* Claude Cetekk, we have built the pyramids, Interlivres 1988;
* Francis Xavier and Thierry Enel, the bible of rock, Robert Laffont, 1990;
* Mario Salvador, architecture, the pyramids at skyscrapers, Pygmalion;
* G. Barbarin, the secret of the great pyramid, Adyar, 1988;
* G. Barbarin, Riddle of the Sphinx large, Adyar, 1966;
* Guy Rachet, Egypt mystique and legendary Sand, 1987;
* C. Matila Ghika, Aesthetic proportions in nature and the arts, the Rock, 1987;
* C. Matila Ghika, the number of gold, Gallimard;
* Manuel Minguez, The Pyramids of Egypt, the secret of their construction, 1989;
* Manuel Minguez, the Obelisks From the Pyramids, the Egyptian secret Builder, 1989.
* Mohammed Zakaria Goneim, Die verschollene Pyramid, Neuauflage 2006 (ISBN 3-8334-6137-3);
* Zahi Hawass, Die Schätze der Pyramiden, Weltbild-Verlag, (ISBN 3-8289-0809-8);
* Peter Jánosi, Die Pyramiden. Mythos und Archäologie, Verlag C.H. Beck, München 2004 (ISBN 3-406-50831-6);
* Jean-Philippe Lauer, Das Geheimnis der Pyramiden, Herbig Verlag, Munich 1980, (ISBN 3-8118-3387-1);
* Mark Lehner, Das erste Weltwunder, London 1997;
* Mark Lehner, Das Geheimnis der Pyramiden in Ägypten, (ISBN 3-572-01039-X);
* Alberto Siliotti, Pyramiden - Pharaonengräber of Alten und Mittleren Reiches, Karl Müller Verlag (ISBN 3-86070-650-0);
* Rainer Stadelmann, Die ägyptischen Pyramiden, Darmstadt 1985/1997;
* Miroslav Verner, Die Pyramiden, Prag 1997.
* Armin Wirsching, Die von Pyramiden Giza - Mathematik in Stein gebaut: Stationen der Sonne auf ihrem Lauf durch das Jahr, Books on Demand Verlag, 2006 Norderstedt, (ISBN 978-8334-5492-9);