Jeanne d'Arc, called the Pucelle d'Orleans is an emblematic figure in the history of France. At the beginning of the fifteenth century, it leads victoriously French troops against the English armies, lifting the siege of Orleans, leads the Dauphin Charles VII of France in coronation in Rheims and thereby helping to reverse the course of the Hundred Years' War.
She was finally captured by the Burgundians in Compiegne, sold the English and condemned the pyre in 1431 after a trial on heresy. Entaché many important irregularities, the trial is broken by Pope Callistus III in 1456, and a second trial in rehabilitation contends his innocence and students to the rank of martyrdom. She was beatified in 1909 and canonized in 1920. It is one of three holy patronnes of France.
Jeanne is high in Domrémy, a village located on the steps of Lorraine, during the Hundred Years War between France to England. Daughter of Jacques d'Arc and Isabelle Romée, it was part of a family of five children: Jeanne, Jacques, Catherine, and Jean Pierre.
No source can not determine the exact date and place of birth Joan of Arc. There is no parish register of Domrémy, as the trial proves the invalidity. It is not known, therefore, his age and place of birth. It is noteworthy that the use of particle does nothing about possible origins noble, a particle could be paid both by commoners by nobles.
The official version that has built the trial held in Rouen sends us that Jeanne d'Arc was born in Domrémy, and it has 18 or 19 years at the time of his trial. Some sources give born on the day of the Epiphany on without specifying the year, on 5 or 6 January 1412, but also a plaque affixed to the front of the Cathedral of Toul said that "having made only in a trial marriage brought by her boyfriend in 1428, it was therefore most at that time, 20 years depending on local law and is no longer under parental responsibility. She was burnt alive in Rouen on May 30, 1431.
She was very devout, and loved to travel, every Sunday at church Bermont near Greux, to pray. The parish of Greux is located in the Barrois moving. That makes Jeanne d'Arc a subject of the Duke of Lorraine, but that depends on a diocese located on lands of the king of France.
His answers at his trial, whose minutes have been carefully preserved, revealing a young woman with courage, frankness and a spirit of prominent left, which probably explains how she managed to galvanize his troops.
During the Hundred Years War, most regions of north and south-west of french territory controlled since 1420 by the English.
King Charles VI, said Charles le Fol, does not have all his mental faculties. The legitimacy of his last surviving son, the Dauphin Charles, heir to the crown, is disputed, because of what had Isabeau adventures of Bavaria, his mother (especially with Louis d'Orleans).
Since the assassination of Louis d'Orleans in November 1407, the country is torn by a civil war between Armagnacs and Burgundians. They compete for power within the regency council chaired by Queen Isabeau because of the folly of her husband. Taking advantage of this conflict Henry V, King of England renewed hostilities and landed in Normandy in 1415. The French knighthood suffered a disaster at Agincourt, in the face of Welsh archers. Indeed, the English, with a mastery of archery long (longbow), and well housed loads from piles arranged in advance, decimating under a rain of arrows French knight whose horses are not still protected. They will thus become masters of battle ground despite their numerical inferiority net, until the artillery campaign that will give the French the advantage at the end of conflict.
During the interview Montereau September 10, 1419, the dauphin Charles and Jean without Fear must be reconciled, to confront the enemy. But unfortunately, during this meeting, Jean without Fear is stabbed by a man dolphin, probably Tanguy of Châtel. In reaction to this assassination, the son of John without Fear, Philippe le Bon, endorses the English imitated in this by the powerful University of Paris.
Allies of the powerful Duke of Burgundy, the English may impose in 1420 the Treaty of Troyes, which was signed between King Henry V of England and Isabeau of Bavaria, queen of France and regent. Under this treaty, Henry V married Catherine, daughter of Charles VI, the death of Charles VI, the crown should return to their offspring, bringing together the two kingdoms.
This treaty that stripped the Dauphin of his right of succession (as illegitimate child and alleged assassin of the Duke of Burgundy) is challenged by the French nobility. At the death of Charles VI in 1422, France has thus more sacred king. The crown of France was then claimed by the King of England still a minor, Henry VI who comes to succeed his father.
From Domrémy in Chinon: 1428 - February 1429
At 13 years, Jeanne claims to have heard the voices of celestial holy Catherine and Marguerite and Saint Michael the Archangel asking him to be pious, freeing the kingdom of France to the invader and lead the Dauphin to the throne. After much hesitation, to 16 years, she is warming up. Check the nearby town, she asks them to join the troops of Dauphin. His application was rejected twice, but she returned a year later and Robert de Baudricourt, captain of Vaucouleurs, agrees to give him an escort, resigned face of popular fervour of the city where Jeanne had acquired a small reputation, including from visit the sick Duke Charles II of Lorraine. Before his departure for the kingdom of France, Jeanne will be collected at the Basilica of Saint-Nicolas-de-Port, dedicated to the patron saint of the Duchy of Lorraine.
Carrying clothes for men (which it will until his death, except for his last Easter), it crosses land incognito Burgundy and she went to Chinon where she was finally allowed to see the Dauphin Charles, after receiving a letter from Baudricourt. The anecdote says it was able to recognize Charles, dressed simply in the middle of his courtiers, and he speaks of his mission. By superstition, Jeanne is housed in the tower of Coudray, where Jacques de Molay was imprisoned and allegedly made his famous curse. Jeanne clearly announced four events: the liberation of Orleans, the coronation of the king in Rheims, the liberation of Paris and the liberation of the Duke of Orleans. After having interviewed by the ecclesiastical authorities in Poitiers where matrons find her virginity, and an investigation Domrémy, Charles gave his agreement on its plan liberation Orleans besieged by the English. Jeanne begins a series of three summonses for English.
Jeanne la Pucelle, warlord: April 1429 - May 1430
His brothers join. On the team of armor and hit a white banner of the fleur-de-lys, it included Jesus Maria, who is also the motto of the mendicant orders (the Dominicans and the Franciscans). Departing from Blois to Orleans, Jeanne expels or married prostitutes for the army of relief and precede its troops clerics. Arriving in Orleans on April 29, it brings supplies and met Jean d'Orleans, said "the Bastard of Orleans' future Earl of Dunois. It is enthusiastically welcomed by the population, but the masters of war are reserved. With his faith, confidence and enthusiasm, she manages to infuse the french soldiers desperate new energy and forcing the English to lift the siege of the city at night from 7 to 8 May 1429.
After this victory, celebrated each year in Orleans these two days, nicknamed the "Pucelle d'Orleans." After cleaning the Loire Valley through the victory of Patay (where Joan of Arc did not take part in the fighting), June 18, 1429 won the face of English, she persuaded the Dauphin to go to Rheims be sacrer King of France.
To get to Reims, equipped to cross-dominated cities of Burgundy who have no reason to open their doors, and nobody has the means to coerce militarily. According Dunois, the coup de bluff at the gates of Troyes involves the submission of the city but also Châlons and Reims. Therefore, the crossing is possible.
On 17 July 1429, in the cathedral of Reims, in the presence of Joan of Arc, Charles VII is sacred by Archbishop Renault Chartres. The Duke of Burgundy, as a pair of the kingdom, is absent, Jeanne sends a letter the same day the coronation asking him peace. The psychological and political effect of this sacred is important. Reims is the heart of territory controlled by the Burgundians and highly symbolic, it is interpreted by many at the time as the result of divine will. It legitimate Charles VII who was disinherited by the Treaty of Troyes and suspected to be in reality the illegitimate son of the Duke of Orleans and Isabelle of Bavaria.
This part of the life of Joan of Arc is commonly his epic: these events are filled with anecdotes where contemporaries routinely small miracles, all supported by their explicit references in the trial, have greatly helped forge the legend and the official history of Joan of Arc. The miraculous discovery of the sword called "Charles Martel" under the altar of Sainte-Catherine-de-Fierbois, is one example.
In the aftermath, Jeanne d'Arc is trying to convince the king to return to Paris Burgundians, but he hesitates. An attack is led by Jeanne in Paris (Porte St-Honore), but must be quickly abandoned. The King eventually prohibit any new assault: money and food shortage and discord reigns within his council. That forced a retreat to the Loire, the army is dissolved.
Jeanne leaves nevertheless campaign: she now leads his own troupe and therefore nothing distinguishes heads of independent wars, it is no longer the king. Its troops will fight against local masters, but without much success. On November 4, 1429, and Charles Pucelle d'Albret took Saint-Pierre-le-Moûtier. On 23 November, they put the seat in front of La Charité-sur-Loire to hunt Perrinet Gressart. For Christmas, Jeanne regained Jargeau after the failure of the seat.
Jeanne is then invited to stay in the castle of the Trémouille to Sully-sur-Loire. She quickly escape from his prison gold, to answer the call with Compiegne, besieged by the Burgundians. Finally, she was caught during an outing at the gates of Compiegne on May 23, 1430. She tries to escape twice, but fails. It is even seriously hurt when they jumped from a window. It was acquired by the English for 10 000 pounds and entrusted to Pierre Cauchon, Bishop of Beauvais and ally of English.
The trial conviction: January 9, 1431 - May 30, 1431
She is accused of heresy and interrogated harshly in Rouen. She is trapped in the dungeon of the castle of Philippe Auguste; only a tour of the construction has come down to us and now called Tour Jeanne d'Arc. The trial began on February 21, 1431. Deemed by the Church, she remains imprisoned in British prisons, in defiance of canon law.
While prison conditions are particularly difficult, Jeanne has nevertheless not been submitted to the question to say, ie to torture. But at the time, torture was a necessary step to a "proper trial". This surprising lack of torture was used as an argument for an original "noble" Joan of Arc. The executioners would not have dared to touch on it.
"In love or hate that God brings to the English, I do not know, but I am convinced they will boutés outside France, except those who die on this earth. "
Jeanne d'Arc at his trial (March 15 1431)
The investigators, led by the Bishop of Beauvais, Bishop Cauchon, fail to establish a valid charge: Jeanne appears to be a good Christian, convinced of his mission, different heretics who proliferate in a climate of mistrust vis - à-vis the Church in these troubled times. The court accuses him by failing to wear clothes man, having left his parents but they have given him leave, especially systematically rely on the judgement of God rather than the " Church militant ", ie ecclesiastical authority land. The judges also felt that its "voice", to which it refers constantly, are in fact inspired by the devil. The University of Paris (Sorbonne), then the balance of Burgundians, gives its opinion: Jeanne is guilty of being schismatic, apostate, liar, devineresse, suspected of heresy, wandering in the faith, blasphématrice of God and saints . Jeanne calls the pope, which will be ignored by judges.
On 24 May, the judges put staged a parody of the stake to frighten Jeanne and the press to recognize its faults. Jeanne in the oral promise (and therefore unverifiable) court of the incarcerated in a prison church, a sign of a cross (as she knew write his name) abjuration his mistakes and acknowledging having lied about the vote and submits to the authority of the Church. It is then returned to his prison at the hands of English. S'estimant wrong, it retracts two days later, endorses new clothes man (in conditions of darkness).
Declared "relapse" (fell in its past mistakes), the court condemns the pyre and pound the "secular arm".
The next day, 30 May 1431, it is burnt up the Old Market in Rouen. It makes the soul shouted three times "Jesus". Reportedly, she is veiled and placed more than three metres tall.
The Cardinal of Winchester had insisted that nothing remains of his body. He wanted to avoid any posthumous cult of "virgin". He had therefore ordered three successive cremations. The first to die lives Jeanne d'Arc by carbon monoxide poisoning, the second left at the centre of the pyre burnt bodies, and third it remained that ash and debris bone which were then dispersed by Geoffray Therage The executioner, in the Seine (where was built later Bridge Jeanne d'Arc) so that we can not do the relics.
De alleged relics of Joan of Arc are kept at the Museum of Art and History of Chinon. Owned by the Archbishop of Tours, it was deposited in this museum in 1963. The glass jar that contains them was discovered in Paris in 1867 in the attic of a pharmacy, located rue du Temple, a pharmacy student, Mr. Noblet. The parchment which closed the opening of the jar bore the words: "Remains found under the stake of Joan of Arc, virgin of Orleans".
The jar contains a human side of 10 cm long covered with a black coat, a piece of fabric flax a half centimeters in length, a cat femur and fragments of charcoal wood.
The medical examiner french Philippe Charlier, pathographie specialist who analysed the remains from February 2006 with his team at the Raymond Poincaré Hospital in Garches (Hauts-de-Seine), concludes that this is remains of mummies, both human mummy and mummy animal, of Egyptian origin dated Lower time and which could either be part of the collection of a cabinet amateur or the pharmacopoeia of an apothecary before ' be used for the manufacture of these pseudo-relics.
A microscopic and chemical analysis of the fragment coast shows he has not been burned, but impregnated with a plant product and mineral black. Its composition is more akin to that of asphalt or pitch well as organic residues of human or animal origin had been reduced to the status of coal per cremation.
The "nose" great perfumers (Guerlain and Jean Patou) were detected on the particular piece of coast a smell of vanilla. But this fragrance can be produced by the decomposition of a body ", as in the case of mummification, not by his cremation.
The fabric flax, meanwhile, has not been burned, but complexion and features that used by the Egyptians to wrap mummies.
On the other hand, on pollen, it was noted a wealth of pine pollen, probably in connection with the use of resin in Egypt during embalming.
Finally, a study has 14 carbon dated the remains between the sixth and the third century BC. J.-C., and a review spectrometric coating the surface of the bones showed it corresponded to those of Egyptian mummies of this period of time.
A documentary recounting point by point all these scientific investigations will be broadcast on France 2 in early 2008.
The trial in rehabilitation: 1455-1456
When Charles takes Rouen, a second trial, at the request of the mother of Jeanne and Spanish decree of Pope Callistus III in 1456 breaks the first trial for "corruption, fraud, defamation, fraud and malice". The Pope ordered Thomas Basin, bishop of Lisieux and adviser to Charles VII, to study in depth the proceedings of the trial of Joan of Arc. His memory was the legal status of the trial in rehabilitation. After recording the testimony of many contemporaries Jeanne, whose first trial lawyers and some judges, he said the first trial and its conclusions "zero, not to have been taken without value or effect and fully rehabilitated Jeanne and his family. It also ordered the "affixing cross honest for the perpetual memory of the deceased" the place where Jeanne is dead. Most judges of the first trial, including the Bishop Cauchon, died in the meantime.
Jeanne d'Arc and his contemporaries
Jeanne d'Arc was very popular during his lifetime, riding to the Reims also known abroad. She began to receive letters on theological questions from many lands. He asked his opinion on which of popes, then competition, it is true. Jeanne closer to the mendicant orders. It was one of many preachers in this era claiming sent directly from God. Even if the main purpose of his mission is the restoration of the throne of France, Pucelle party takes facts on the plan and theological debate. Conflicts of interest around it beyond the political rivalry between the English and supporters of Dauphin.
Thus the University of Paris, which was "filled creatures of the King of England" does not see a good eye, unlike the theologians of Poitiers, composed of academics Parisian exile by the English, and also Unlike the archbishop of Embrun, bishops of Poitiers and Maguelonne, Jean Gerson (formerly chancellor of the University of Paris), General Inquisitor Toulouse, and the Inquisitor Jean Dupuy who did that Issues like "namely the return of the king to his kingdom and the expulsion or crushing enemies just very very stubborn." These people Church, and others, supported the Pucelle.
For the prominent religious authority that was then the Sorbonne, the religious behavior of Jeanne than the issue of a reconquest of the kingdom, and doctors of theology of this institution as a threat against their authority, particularly because of support rivals of the University to Jeanne, and for what it represents in the struggle for influence within the Church.
Jeanne has been no more than friends in the courtyard of Dauphin, the party favorite La Trémouille (Gilles de Rais was) are regularly placed in opposition, the council of Dauphin, facing its initiatives.
Its role in the Hundred Years War
Jeanne d'Arc has neither influenced alone on the final phase of the war, which ended in 1453, nor been non-existent in the tactical and strategic role of his campaign. Dunois speaks of a person endowed with an undeniable sense and quite capable of placing the key pieces of artillery at the time. The facts are weapons to its credit, although some battles have been settled in part by curious events. She was also an undeniably charismatic leader.
On the geopolitical front, the Kingdom of France, even deprived of everything that was located north of the Loire, enjoyed human and material resources far superior to those of England, four times less populated. The strategy of Charles V, which focused on time, avoiding fighting and a siege by the strongholds, a perfectly demonstrated the limits of the English invasion.
However, before the intervention of Jeanne d'Arc, the English enjoyed a very important psychological advantage linked to several reasons:
1. the reputation of invincibility of their troops;
2. the Treaty of déshéritait Troyes which the dolphin Charles and called into question its descent towards the King Charles VI;
3. a state of despondency and resignation of the population;
4. the alliance with Burgundy.
The advantage of the digital kingdom of France weighed little. This situation was that in 1429 the dynamic was English.
Jeanne was undeniably deserves to reverse the psychological ascendancy in favour of France, dating back to the morale of the armed forces and populations, and sacrant legitimizing the king, and beating the English. Charles VII took him, the initiative to mending with the Burgundians, indispensable step for the reconquest of Paris. Jeanne d'Arc apparently was not wearing the Burgundians in his heart because of their proximity to his village of Domrémy and clashes there had been given.
The issue of her virginity
In openly called the "Pucelle," Jeanne accréditait the idea that it was sent from God and not a witch, her virginity clearly symbolizes the purity of Jeanne, both physically and in its religious and political intentions. Therefore check her virginity becomes an important issue, given the political importance of projects Jeanne: to restore the legitimacy of Charles, and bring the sacred.
Twice, the virginity of Jeanne was evidenced by matrons, in Poitiers in March 1429, but in Rouen, January 13, 1431. Pierre Cauchon (the very man who had it burn) had ordered the second examination to find a charge against her, in vain.
However, it is difficult to know what happened between the judgement and the finding of relaps, when Jeanne was badly mistreated by his jailers, disfigured. According to Martin Ladvenu, an English lord allegedly tried to force her in prison, in vain.
Problems of historical sources
The two main sources on the history of Jeanne d'Arc are the trial in condemnation of 1431, and the trial in rehab 1455-1456. Because of legal acts, they have the immense advantage of being retranscriptions most loyal depositions. But they are not alone: records, chronicles were also written during his lifetime, as the noble gesture of Francis, the Chronicle of the Pucelle, the Chronicle of Cagny Perceval, or the Journal of the headquarters' Orleans and travel to Reims. We must also add reports from diplomats and other informants.
This is Jules Quicherat which will bring together on an almost exhaustive historiography John between 1841 and 1849, in 5 volumes. Between the fifteenth century and the nineteenth century, a crowd of writers, politicians, religious have appropriated Jeanne d'Arc, and their writings are numerous. So we have to be careful in the handling of sources: his little contemporary, and they often reinterpret the original sources in the context of their interpreter.
The trials are legal acts. Both trials have the distinction of having undergone an obvious political influence, and the inquisitorial method often requires that the accused and witnesses do the questions posed. In addition, the trial of 1431 was transcribed in latin (probably without the knowledge of Jeanne), while interrogations were french.
Philippe Contamine, during his research, found an abundance of writings from 1429, and the "tremendous impact at international level" that this abundance testifies. It also notes that Jeanne d'Arc was immediately put into controversy and debate made by his contemporaries. Finally, from the beginning "ran stories about him, about his childhood, his prophecies, its mission, miracles and wonders where she was the author. In the beginning was the myth. "
It therefore appears that no document of the contemporary era - except minutes of the trial - is immune strain after the collective imagination. During the trial rehabilitation, witnesses tell of old memories after 26 years.
The knighting granted to Jeanne d'Arc by King Charles VII poses another problem. There are no effect for the original charter attest, but only documents certifying that anoblissement written later. These documents which we do not know if they are false or distorted part of the historical truth show that Jeanne d'Arc was anoblie by Charles VII and with it his parents, as was customary for assoir descent without nobility dispute, and therefore filiation present and future of his brothers and sister. In 1614, the offspring of the very large family of Arc showed that it was only towards the roture, and the king withdrew their titles of nobility. In addition, the treasure to be won numerous pensions, as each member of the lineage was entitled to compensation from the treasury for the sacrifice of Joan of Arc.
A copy of the charter anoblissement which we received said that King Charles VII fit the lady Jeanne du Lys, without conceding an inch of land, neither she nor to his brothers and sister, which was contrary to the 'use of the knighting because the title was intended to assoir property so hereditary. In other words, the lady doing du Lys, King Charles VII linked to the kingdom and the nation, but it was doomed to chastity and poverty it does not benefit allocated land, which deprived at the same time his kinship to the possibility to use properly this anoblissement since remained without possibility of rising in society nobility. The d'Arc remained commoners by force of circumstance.
Relaps before heroin
Christine de Pisan is one of the few contemporary writers have praised Jeanne d'Arc, the new Judith. Villon mentions two verses, among Dames of times gone by, "Jeanne good Lorraine / Qu'Anglois burned in Rouen." Before the nineteenth century, the image of Joan of Arc is disfigured by the literature. Only the leaflet Edmont Richier, especially prolific on the theological, provides a historical component, however, marred by inaccuracies. Chapelain, poet laureate of Louis XIV, he devotes an epic unfortunately very poor in terms of literature. Voltaire devotes one and a half to the glory of Jeanne d'Arc in his Henriade, singing VII "... And you, brave Amazon, the shame of English and support to the throne. "And over twenty miles to dishonour.
The virgin becomes the one who saved France
Since the nineteenth century, the exploits of Joan of Arc are usurped to serve some political purpose in defiance of history. The mysteries of this exploitation of a heroin which symbolizes a mythical France, even mystical, are explored in Jeanne d'Arc: birth of a myth.
Jeanne d'Arc was rehabilitated in 1817, in the book by Philippe-Alexandre Le Brun of Charmettes: Story of Joan of Arc, nicknamed the Pucelle d'Orleans, drawn from his own statements, one hundred and forty-four witnesses eye, and manuscripts from the library of King of the Tower of London. The work of this scrupulous historian, based on surveys rigorous, and the study of original documents, often been used as the basis of work by writers and french foreign, as Jules Quicherat, who helped restore his titles of nobility to la Pucelle d'Orleans.
Jeanne d'Arc was canonized in 1920, and Pius XI proclaimed the patron saint secondary France in 1922.
Read also www.us.playstation.com/jeannedarc/