The bagpipe is a musical instrument wind and especially reeds. There are over a hundred types in the world. Its range is the whole of Europe, the Caucasus, the Maghreb, the Persian Gulf and goes to Northern India. It already existed in the days of Greeks, it is believed, have borrowed from ancient Egypt. It was then spread by the Romans. Instrument pastoral at the outset, it has developed over the centuries a directory full-fledged which culminates with the music of Court and military music.
Pipe and Tank
It is a watertight container (bag animal skin or gore-tex is a combination of leather exterior and interior goretex) in which the air is injected either by the mouth of the performer or by a bellows ( what is more rare). The air inside the tank then escaping on a continuous basis to the pipes of wood (ebenne or fruit) often trained segments nested whose internal end has a single or double reed that produces the sound. These pipes are or not, drilled holes on Thursday which, like a flute, are closed or opened by the fingers or keys (more rarely) to produce the melody. When they drilled holes, one speaks of "melodic pipes," but also "pipes semi-melodic" according to their role in the musical production. A pipe without hole Thursday called "drone", and it gives a note continues. There is often decorative trimmings.
The melodic pipe is fitted with a reed simple (a vibrant tongue, as on the clarinet) or double (two tabs vibrant, as on the oboe). The latter is most common in France (except for boha Landes) hence its name oboe, torch, chanterelle) or sing. The term "foot" is also used to talk about the pipe melodic but its use is not appropriate in all cases: the foot is, in the case of bagpipes d'Auvergne (cabrette), all "pipe and melodic drone pipe "parallel to one another or, in the case of musette baroque is the dual pipe melodic. The term footing should apply only to these two pipes where two parallel pipes (and melodic drone, two melodic) can be dismantled in a gesture because they are fixed on the same piece of wood, which is itself linked to tank. In all other cases, one can speak of oboe, if the pipe is well equipped with a double reed. For the melodic hose can be fitted with a reed simple. This case is very common for bagpipes of Eastern Europe, Sweden, the Mediterranean, the Caucasus, the Middle East and as far as India (where it also plays the Scottish bagpipe left by the British) .
Some pipes are fitted with a hose melodic used to accompany and ornementer the main melody, and so-called semi-melodic pipe for this reason. As the pipe melodic, where he is always placed (and even, it is often pierced in the same block of wood), it has holes Thursday The Hungarian duda, boha Landes and Italian zampogna are equipped d ' such a pipe. There may be 1 to 4 holes (5 or more rarely, knowing that the pipe has always melodic addition, ie 6 with sometimes seventh on the back for the thumb). The Irish uilleann pipes, hoses has several semi-melodic. Called "regulators" in English, regulators in french, they are three, four or even five rarely. They can make arrangements to accompany and are equipped with keys that are activated with the wrist of his right hand.
The number of bumblebees, these pipes, which are also used to support but which can hardly alter the course of Thursday the note produced, is highly variable from one to four, who are most often granted to the octave or two octaves in the tonic pipe melodic, but also in fifth or quarte. The Scottish bagpipe has three, some bagpipes of Serbia as well. But all the pipes are not necessarily a drone. One example of mezwed Tunisian or the Greek tsambouna. But they have either a double pipe melodic (two pipes strictly twins, placed side by side, fingers bouchant two holes at a time), is a pipe semi-melodic.
For example, the Great Highland bagpipe Scottish Bagpipe includes the following items (roughly the same on all bagpipes, in principle at least):
1. hose melodic (torch or levriad breton or to sing in English)
2. air reservoir (pocket)
4. pipe insufflation (also called blowpipe or sutel in breton)
5. Bumblebees tenors,
6. Bourdon bass,
7. backstage ok,
8. ropes keeping (specific to the great bagpipes in Scotland and the biniou braz breton).
The pipe insufflation is equipped with a non-return valve (valve), allowing air introduced not out. All bagpipes have at least one pipe melodic, to play the melody. The difference is on the presence and number of bumble bees, the presence and number of pipes semi-melodic, the presence of a pipe insufflation or bellows.
On the reservoir are set one or several strains, ligaturees is sealed. In stumps, just introduce the pipes Thursday They serve as an intermediary between the reservoir and the pipe: you can detach the pipes to give the reeds without having everything unravel. On the "big pipes of Scotland", there is a strain on hose Thursday, while on other bagpipes as the zampogna, there may be a strain common to several pipes. In some cases (bagpipe in Turkey for example), insufflation pipe is connected directly without strain.
The tank is usually made from animal skin almost entirely, as the goat (which gave its name to the instrument as is the case for cabrette Auvergne or koza Polish). It is also done in a piece of bovine leather (which is the case in most of Western Europe). To ensure the tightness, the skin is worked in different ways. In the case of goatskin, it is common for hair that were cut short to be kept inside and coated with salt will absorb moisture from the breath. In the case of using a piece of leather sewn cattle, the inner surface is coated with pitch or molasses. Others still bagpipes can be made from a bladder (those found in the Volga region in Russia, for example). Currently, they are a gore-tex, in recent constructions, according to the wishes of musicians. The cahoutchouc was abandoned because it veillissait very badly. Often, the tank slid into a fabric that is known as the dress or bag.
The pipes sonnants of bagpipes operate through a reed that it is necessary to anchor a few minutes before they can play. Depending on the type of bagpipes, there is a simple reed on the hose and melodic (the) drone (s), such as on koziol Polish, or double reeds (eg. Zampogna some Italian Baroque and musette . Other bagpipes still operate with a double reed pipe for the melody and a simple reed for (the) drone (s). This is the case eg. Bag gemecs catalan, the veuze Nantes, cabrette the Auvergne, and so on.
The reeds simple: They consist of a small tube reed (Canne de Provence), cut so as to find a small piece, the party vibrant, whose length and thickness gives the arrivals. This is the parameters that will have to play to give the reed. Sometimes the piece is made in another substance (such as bronze), and then it is bound by the tow or wire hemp poissé and coated poisse on the tube that has been practiced in advance a rectangular hole corresponding the coverslip.
The reed is on file, slip up in the pipe Thursday, melodic or drone. The air vibrates in the strip s'engouffrant in the reed, and then into the pipe and the pipe starts to ring.
The reed is as simple as that used for the clarinet and saxophone.
The reeds twofold: They are made of two strips of reed trapezoidal, refined (scraping) on the widest part, and deposited on a small tube (a barrel, which is enfoncera in the pipe), and kept one against another with a wire, natural materials (linen, cotton) or synthetic, which can also provide them (because it covers more strips, the more you shorten the surface vibrant and vice versa). There also, in the case of reeds more complex (and newer), a small barette brass, which serves a accord, which called rasette. The barrel has wire or a small piece of cork to fit the pipe.
The double reeds are also used by the bassoon, chalemie, oboe, the bombing, or the English horn.
The bagpipe is played generally standing because it requires the full capacity of the lungs, except models bellows, which are seated. If enough to infuse the bag for a sound so immediately by sonnants pipes, it must first wet reeds and give the drones, and then reconstruct the pipes in emboîtant pipes in the stem and reeds in the possibly pipes. Once the bag inflated you can relax the breath (sometimes sing) while pressing the bag through the arm in general, allowing her to have a continuous and powerful. The bag can thus increase and regulate the power of breath continued.
She plays solo, training of bagpipes, pipe band (Scotland) or by bagad (Brittany). It plays just as dances as the military or religious music, and so on.
The bagpipe player is called "piper" ( "cornemuseux" is derogatory unless used in the field of traditional music of Central France) or "ringer" in Brittany where he can play two terroirs, the breton ( bigouden, vannetais, trégorois ... ect) and Scotland (much more technical and faster).
List of bagpipes
* Askomadoura, bagpipe near the Cretan tsambouna;
* Baghèt, an Italian bagpipes from the valleys of Bergamo;
* Biniou braz or pib veur (breton, male name), literally "big pipes", which is actually a Great Highland Bagpipe with a game very close dating back 1950 years;
* Biniou kozh (breton, male name), literally "old pipes", one of the most acute bagpipes.
* Bodega Occitan.
* Boha (bagpipe Landes), the traditional bagpipe Landes de Gascogne;
* Border pipe (Scotland), the traditional bagpipe southern Scotland and the north-east of England;
* Cabrette (Auvergne), bagpipe appeared in the nineteenth century in the community Auvergne Paris and spread quickly in Haute Auvergne and Aubrac, which includes a hose pipe and a melodic accompaniment, but the latter is not always functional;
* Ciaramedda, Italian bagpipe;
* Central France; pipes commonly used, rebuilt from old models preserved in museums or families of former musicians;
* Chabrette (limousine) and (Perigord);
* Cornette, a bagpipe of southern Italy;
* Doedelzak (French and Belgian Flanders) found on the representation of Brughel and is a bagpipe very close to the centre of musette France.
* Duda (Hungary);
* Dudy (Poland);
* Gaïda (Bulgarian) and Greece, whose bag is made of the skin of a goat on which are mounted drones and oboe at the site of the legs and neck of the animal;
* Gaita (Galicia and Asturias);
* Gaita of foles (Portugal);
* Great Highland Bagpipe (Scotland), so the pipes War Scots regiments of the British army and by extension the pipe-bands;
* The great nivernaise (Burgundy), "There were at the last century at Saint-Pierre Moutier in Nivernais, manufacturers large bagpipes (...) who excelled in inlaid tin and lead which they charge torches wooden pear. A rather curious detail is that the lily flowers that formed the basis of this decoration would never ceased to affect the form they had in the sixteenth century. " Eugene de Bricqueville, 1895.
* Karamunxia or karamoussa, bagpipe Italy and Crete;
* Loure (Norman), shown in old manuscripts or a sculpture, she disappeared in the eighteenth century;
* Mezoued (Tunisia);
* Musa, a bagpipe of northern Italy;
* Musette Béchonnet (Burgundy), in the Charolais and Brionnais, GRETT researchers have discovered that the practice of bagpipes lasted until 1931. They identified so far a dozen local cornemuseux, playing on instruments bellows-type Béchonnet;
* Musette bressane (Burgundy), small bagpipe bellows, oboe in B flat and two drones (drone parallel to the oboe on the same housing). It was found several copies of which one in perfect condition, signed Lutaud 1852, the museum kept Ursuline to Macon. This copy has served as a model to B. Jacquemin (luthier in Semur-en-Auxois) to make copies to reconstitute a style of play which there is no sound evidence.
* Musette court (used in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in France, these pipes bellows a characteristic of possessing two oboes, to make two simultaneous melodies, drones and nine accordables. It was made of ivory, her bag was embroidered on silk son money, its use remains the prerogative of noble lovers' sheep '.
* Small Northumbrian Pipes (Northumberland County, north-east of England), commonly known as small pipe;
* Panse of oueille, or worse for chieuv '(Burgundy) In southern Morvan and Nivernais, the association Lai Pan has made an inventory of musicians and instruments. The bagpipes found, type musette Centre, are not local bill. The practice has remained alive until the years 1950;
* Pipa, a bagpipe in northern Italy;
* Pipossa (deformation of pipe bag), name of a bagpipe disappeared from the region of Boulogne-sur-Mer;
* Gemecs bag, bagpipes of Catalonia;
* Sackpfeifen, bagpipe German and Swiss;
* Säckpipa (Sweden);
* Schweizer Sackpfeife (bagpipe Switzerland): Switzerland, the bagpipe was an instrument in traditional music from the Middle Ages to the eighteenth century;
* Scottish Smallpipe (Scotland), which is a version of northumbrian pipe developed by Colin Ross, using the skill of the great bagpipe in Scotland, in the years 1980;
* Shuvir, bagpipe Russian;
* Surdulina, bagpipe of southern Italy near the zampogna;
* Tsambouna, bagpipe Greek;
* Tulum, is a bagpipe own in the north-east of Turkey;
* Union Uilleann pipes or pipes (Irish, who owns a complex of bumblebees to key regulators, the number of 3 on a full set, and 3 drones, including a two octaves in the fundamental torch;
* Veuze (instrument Marsh breton / Vendeen double reed not pinch).
* War pipe (gdp mhor, Ireland) see Great Highland Bagpipe;
* Zampogna, bagpipe polyphonic singing Italian double and four drones.
Read also Ney (Music)