The ney (Persian or Turkish), or nay (Arabic) is a flute oblique mouth terminal reed, a native of Central Asia, whose oldest forms dating from the age of the pyramids (representation on Egyptian tomb paintings to 3000-2500 BC. AD). You can also find these flutes oblique spelling naï, or nai.
For convenience, in this article, the term ney will be used for flutes oblique Turkish and Persian, and the term for the nay flute oblique Arabic.
Beware of homophony. The naï, or nai Romanian is not a flute oblique mouth terminal but a pan flute.
All these names homophones come from a single Persian word meaning "reed". The pronunciation is (phonetic) "naj" for spelling nay, and "n ɛ j" for ney.
Ney and nay of the Arab-Turkish-Persian
These are three instruments scientists played in the World Arabic, Turkish and Persian, not to be confused with other popular reed flutes of these same regions: gasba, qasba, guesba, fahal, jawak, awada '(Maghreb), kawwala, suffara, gharb (Egypt), shabbaba, shbiba, lula (Iraq), kaval Turkish-Balkan (secondary wood) or blul (Armenia). These flutes differ as much by the bill than in the directory, or the technical execution.
However, all these flutes scholarly or popular stem from the same archetype (though not necessarily come from a single area ...).
The ney "scholar" appears to favor concerts spiritual Jalal Ud-Din Rumi, samâ's, inspired by the Mathnavi, his masterpiece which he compares to a ney, using this instrument so central. So the Sufi dervishes who would be responsible for its development and its spread from Turkey to Persia and the Arab world.
These instruments, however, show the particularities depending on the area of use, knowing that the musical theories of these areas are different, even if they sometimes overlap. In addition, the congress in Cairo (1932) revealed significant disparities in scale (all non temperate), and in the medium and built according theorists invoked. The different directories, etc. ...
These instruments use therefore ranges own each of these respective classical music, micro intervals necessary to make perfectly these scales are obtained by the flute slightly away from the axis of the mouth. The accuracy is achieved remarkable precision is also essential, since the melody in the non-tempered does not support approximations regarding their accuracy.
The instrument is available in many sizes, each corresponding to a different tone. Thus, flutists East, to avoid transposition by the fingering, have usually several neys, each of which provides a fundamental and a different register. They can be transformed into keeping their fingerings and play together with different instruments and singers. This is a common practice for nayati (player nay) Arabic, but not ordinary case of Turkish musician (who often plays on a pair of ney, for example, a mansour and kiz) or Persian.
The piercing of the instrument (the destruction of the bulkheads at the knots) with a rod of iron red fire is an important phase in this instrument. Indeed, we are for these three flutes in the presence of holes types of games that would equidistant a false instrument if the piercing was perfectly cylindrical, and it is "rognant" more or less these walls, and thus leaving strictures some knots that the good agreement of the instrument will be obtained.
In addition to the symbolic virtues attached to the number of nodes, we see that the number and their respective locations nearby holes Thursday are therefore essential elements of the bill.
In general, holes Thursday, are also pierced with a rod of iron red fire.
The Arabic nay consists of a simple reed formed by 9 segments (8 knots) open at both ends, but without notch edge outside the mouth.
It has six holes earlier Thursday, divided into two similar groups of three placed in the sixth, seventh and eighth segments, and a post hole located in the middle of the instrument, which is blocked by the inch.
This is the smallest of the three types with an average of 40 to 60 cm long, and is also the oldest model, with two others, Turkish and Persian, derived.
The Turkish ney knows own evolution since the thirteenth century, but the body of the instrument is absolutely similar to the description given for the nay Arabic. The essential difference lies firstly in the addition of a mouth, başpâre, ivory, bone, horn or plastic, and metal rings to solidify the other.
It is the largest with a size of 70 to 90 cm on average. It is often larger in proportion to the Arabic nay, which has the effect of favouring the issuance of the most serious sounds of the flute. This, of course, corresponding to the needs of the Turkish repertoire, generally more serious and meditative as the directory Arabic.
The Iranian ney differs from the previous two. It has only six holes (one rear clogged with the thumb). It is beveled inside the mouth and shows a small notch, or has a metal ring, these two devices being associated with a different breathing technique, known as technical dentale, "particularly dramatic and musical.
Another ring of metal sometimes protect the foot of the instrument. The reed must have seven segments (six knots) and the holes are asymmetric as divided into a group of three, placed in the fourth and fifth segments, and a group of two placed in the fifth and sixth segments. It is sometimes decorated the pyrogravure.
Its size is 50 to 70 cm.
It plays in business suit sitting on the heels on a chair or standing according to the traditions and quality of breath sought. It plays music or learned folk solo as a whole.
The playing technique is complex because the mouth is free and open (unlike a recorder) and therefore the musician who should control the emission of his breath so that it produces the sound you want, what also depends on the skill, the position of the lips, tongue, and the angle between the lips and ney. The micro-intervals typical musical traditions of Arab, Turkish and Persian are obtained by the change in the inclination on head-reed and partial filling of holes and the mouth.
To play the ney Arab-Turkish, is available fattening against his lower lip and incline on the reed according to two different obliquites then, advancing the lips, form a round hole three millimeters in diameter. The breath must be lightweight but strong enough so the air is not hot and that half of the air blown in between the ney. The fingering uses the first phalanges and non-pulp fingers for plugging holes.
The Iranian style of play is to position the mouth between the teeth (incisors) and lead the breath with the language recourbée inside of the mouth and one side of the upper lip raised to let the sound. The result is a sound refined and powerful. It Nayeb Asadollah (circa 1920) who borrowed this technique to Turkmens. Here the ney is held right, but variations of positions also allow the alteration of notes. The skill rather uses the second phalanges.
The ney is appointed in accordance with the note produced when the first hole is open, as the dokah (Turkish name for note re) of the Arabic music that produces the re note as fundamental, mansur (severe soil), kiz (the grave ) And yildiz (if).
While the European flutes use only the first and second harmonic notes produced for their first two octaves, the ney has the particularity to use all the series of harmonics: fundamental octave, twelfth (or fifths of the octave), fifteenth (or octave to octave). Thus, on a dokah, using only the skill of re serious, a seasoned musician will produce the following notes: re serious re medium, medium, re acute, fa acute and acute. This is made possible by the organology of the instrument: the piercing is very close, to more easily produce harmonics acute. This last point is quite true for the Arabic nay, but not for neys Turkish and Persian, which are rarely registers beyond the second octave of the instrument.
The Turkish style is smooth and flowing, the Iranian style favours staccatos and changes in octaves while the Arabic style is often more rhythmic, according to the tradition of shepherds.
Among the masters are:
* Turkish: Kudsi Erguner, Suleyman Erguner and Hayri Tumer.
* Iranian: Kassai, and Mohammad Mussavi Hossein Omoumi.
* Arab Samir Naim Siblini and Bitar.
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