Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe (Boston, January 19, 1809 - Baltimore, 7 October 1849) is a poet, novelist, nouvelliste, literary critic, playwright and U.S. publisher, and one of the main figures of American romanticism. Known mainly for its tales - the kind whose brevity allows him to develop his theory of the effect, following which all elements of the text should contribute to the attainment of a single purpose - it gave the new letters acclaim and is considered the inventor of the detective novel. Many of his stories foreshadow the kinds of science fiction and fantasy.
Born in Boston, Edgar Allan Poe loses his parents in its infancy and is collected by John and Frances Allan Richmond, Virginia, where he spends most of his younger years, except for a stay in England and Scotland, in a relative ease. After a brief stint at the University of Virginia and attempted military career, leaving Allan Poe. His literary career began humbly by the anonymous publication of a collection of poems entitled Tamerlane and Other Poems (1827), signed only "by a Bostonien." Poe moved to Baltimore, where he lives with his paternal family and abandons some poetry to prose. In July 1835, he became assistant editor at the Southern Literary Messenger of Richmond, where it contributes to increased subscriptions and begins to develop its own style in terms of literary criticism. The same year he married Virginia Clemm, his cousin, aged 13 years.
After the failure of his novel The Adventures of Arthur Gordon Pym, Poe made his first collection of stories, Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque, 1839. The same year, he became editor-in Burton's Gentleman's Magazine, then in Graham's Magazine in Philadelphia. It is in Philadelphia that many works among the best known were published. In this city, Poe has also proposed the creation of its own newspaper, The Penn (later renamed The Stylus), which will never see the light of day. In February 1844, he moved to New York, where he works at Broadway Journal, a magazine which he finally becomes the sole owner.
In January 1845, Poe publishes The Raven, which proved an immediate success. But just two years later, his wife Virginia died of tuberculosis on January 30, 1847. Poe plans to remarry, but no project will materialize. On October 7, 1849, Poe dies at age 40 in Baltimore. The causes of his death could not be determined and have been variously attributed to alcohol, drugs, cholera, rabies, a disease of the heart, brain congestion, and so on.
The influence of Poe has been and remains important to the USA as in the whole world, not only on literature, but also on other artistic fields such as the cinema and music, or in scientific fields. American Author, it is no exception to the proverb which says that no one is a prophet in his country, since it was first recognized and upheld by french authors, Baudelaire and Mallarme in mind. The critical contemporary places among the most remarkable writers of American literature of the nineteenth century.
A family of actors
He was born on January 19, 1809 in Boston, Massachusetts. His mother, Elizabeth Arnold (1787-1811) is the daughter of two actors in London, Henry (William Henry) Arnold and Elizabeth Smith. Upon the death of his father in 1796, she followed her mother in America. Arriving on January 3 in Boston aboard the Oustram, she climbs on stage three months later, aged just nine years. She then joined with his mother, who died some time later, a small theatre, Charleston Players.
In the summer of 1802, she married actor Charles Hopkins, in Alexandria, Virginia, who died three years later, on October 26, 1805. At 18, already a widow, she married a boy with tuberculosis and alcohol 21 years, David Poe Jr. (1784-1810), whose father, General David Poe Sr. (1742 or 1743-1816), a patriot of trader Baltimore, had shown during the war of independence. David Poe Jr. had abandoned his law studies to engage in June 1805, in Charleston Players. There he met Elizabeth Arnold Hopkins, he married March 14, 1806. At the time, they play the Federal Street Theater in Boston. Elizabeth is a dancer and singer, but David is an alcoholic, tuberculosis and poor actor.
Edgar is the second of three children of the couple. His brother, William Henry Leonard, born on January 30, 1807, died on 1 August 1831, at the age of 24 years, alcohol and tuberculosis, while her sister, Rosalie, born December 20, 1810, twelve years contract a disease Unknown, perhaps meningitis, which leaves backward and will require a mental placed under guardianship throughout his life.
In September 1809, the family left Boston for New York Park Theater. On 18 October, David Poe, who sank into alcoholism, plays his last role, he ran away a few months later, in July 1810. He died shortly afterwards without doubt, in December 1810. The same year, Elizabeth gave birth to a daughter, Rosalie. She toured the South, accompanied by Edgar (William Henry was entrusted to his paternal grandfather). But ill, she does that intermittently.
On 9 October 1811, in Richmond (VA), ill, she must bed. On 25 November, a local newspaper appeals to the generosity of citizens of Richmond, under the title "human heart": "Mrs. Poe, lying on his bed of pain and surrounded by her children, request your assistance and the application may be the last time! ". On December 8, 1811, Elizabeth was washed away by the evil that eats away, maybe pneumonia at the age of 24 years, having played almost two cents roles, leaving her children orphans. Two weeks after his funeral, the scene of Richmond burned during a performance, and the troupe, private theatre, leaving the city after leaving Edgar and Rosalie to the charity of the bourgeoisie in the city.
While William Henry lives with his grandfather David Poe and his aunt Maria Clemm, Edgar is collected by a couple of rich traders of tobacco and food colonial Richmond, John and Frances Allan, and Rosalie (1810-1874) by Mackenzie. On January 7, 1812, Edgar was baptized by the Rev. John Buchanan, probably under the name of "Edgar Allan Poe" and with Allan for godmother and godfather.
An education aristocrat virginien
Edgar spent his childhood in Richmond, foster parents, who raised him with tenderness. In 1814, barely 5 years old, he started his primary education led by Clotilda or Elizabeth Fisher. The following year, he briefly at the school by William Ewing. In 1815, indeed, John Allan (1780-1834), which is of Scottish origin, decides to go to Britain to study the market and, if possible, to open a branch in London. The Bible occupies an important place in the life of Edgar, despite the rationalist John Allan. Edgar, who has six years left and Richmond school board with his parents and younger sister of Ms. Allan, Ann Moore Valentine (known as Nancy) to Norfolk (Virginia) aboard the Lothair.
Debarques in Liverpool on July 28, Allan earn first Scotland. But the Scottish market is bad, and the family soon moved to London. Edgar follows, from 1816 to 1818, primary school to school damsels Dubourg (146 Sloan Street, Chelsea, London), where he is known as "Master Allan," then the Manor House School in London, Stoke Newington, led by the Rev. John Bransby (it could have served as a model for the college of William Wilson, under the name of "Edgar Allan." It follows classical studies and literary solid. But the situation is deteriorating. First, his adoptive mother, whose health has always been fragile, falls seriously ill, which make it nervous, irritable. In addition, John Allan faces serious financial woes: the stock market collapse of tobacco, then used the escroque. The young Edgar, who is separated from his family, made a first fugue. In 1817, Edgar is sent to school in Stoke Newington in the campaign. It showed a character irritable and sometimes tyrannical towards his comrades, but gets brilliant academic results, including latin and french, as well as in sports.
On 22 July 1820, the family Allan left England for New York aboard the Martha and relocated to Richmond, July 27. Edgar resumed their way to school, where he obtained, again, excellent results, but began to show a penchant for solitude and daydream. In 1823, cases of John Allan are dying and lives in the house suffers Allan. Edgar continues to write poems that address to students at the school where his sister.
Relations with his adoptive parents are ambivalent. It is encouraged by his mother in his paperwork, but it turns playing some residents of Richmond cause despair of his father. The latter takes the character enough shading proud of the young person, and is slowly moving away from his wife, always sick. Edgar, very committed to Frances Allan (1784-1829), condemns adultery by his adoptive father. John Edgar Allan would like to see become a merchant, but the young man not dream of poetry and consider, at a pinch, a career in the army. He often finds refuge in the mother of a classmate, Jane Stith Stanard, who is the inspiration of the poem At Helena (1831). His death in 1824, will greatly affect Edgar.
A big inheritance, in March 1825, allows John Allan to pay its debts and buy a brick mansion known as "Moldavia" (14 to 950 dollars). Between 1821 and 1825, Edgar frequent best private schools in Richmond, where he received the traditional education of gentlemen virginiens. It is included in the English Classical School, John H. Clarke (1821-1822), and then he attended the College William Burke (1823-March 1825) and the school of Dr. Ray Thomas and his wife.
At that time, he wrote his first to satirical, all lost today, except O Tempora! O Mores! In addition, it is very influenced by the work and the character of Lord Byron. Good student, he shows excellent swimmer and avid long jump. In June or July 1824, he swims six or seven miles along the James River, while his master follows on a boat. From 26 to 28 October 1824, during his trip to the USA, General La Fayette visit Richmond. Volunteers junior of the city participate in the ceremonies held to welcome him; Edgar east Lieutenant volunteers.
On 14 February 1826, he joined the new University of Virginia, Charlottesville, just based Jefferson (it opened its doors on March 7 1825), where he follows with brio language courses ancient and modern. But Mr Allan gave him just enough money to register. Excédé by gambling debts and running costs of Edgar, amounting to 2 000 dollars, then he has to pass its first examinations, John Allan refuses to reinstate and back to Richmond in December 1826 for use in its trading house. In addition, it ruined her engagement with Elmira Royster (1810-1888), the father of the girl rushed to marry a rich merchant, Alexander Shelton.
Dreams of glory and peregrinations
In March 1827, as his stepfather refuses to return to university, he left his adoptive family and fled to Boston, where he hopes to survive by publishing his poems. He spends two months as a player or soldier, we do not know. On 26 May under the name of Edgar A. Perry (pseudonym reuse it to sign some tales), after four years old, he is committed for five years as second-class gunner in the federal army. At the same time, he published at his own expense, at Calvin FS Thomas Boston, a thin wafer anonymous Tamerlane and Other Poems on which is inscribed "A Bostonian" and just 50 copies are sold. There are now only 12 copies.
In November, its battery is transferred to Fort Moultrie on Sullivan Island, facing Charleston (this island will serve as the decor very popular Beetle gold). Despite its rapid promotion to the rank of artificier, then sergeant-major (1 January 1829) and friendship of his superiors, Edgar bored. John Allan denied the letter of authorization, without which he can not resign. On 15 December 1828, the artillery battery where he serves is transferred to the fortress Monroe (VA).
On 28 February 1829, Frances Allan Keeling dies. She is buried on March 2 at Shockoe Hill Cemetery. Prévenu late, Edgar arrived on the evening of that day's funeral this mother loved so much. During his stay, Edgar is reconciled with her temporarily adoptive father, who agrees to help him to resign from the army and support (dryly) his candidacy at West Point, school officers of the U.S. military. On April 4, Edgar is discharged from the army.
A new history of debt leads to a new blurs between the two men. Liberated from the army in April 1829, without a penny, Edgar will wait for its admission to West Point in Baltimore. He stays with his aunt Maria Clemm (1790-1871), younger sister of his father, who lost her husband in 1826 and lives in extreme poverty, surrounded by her mother impotente, Elizabeth Cairnes Poe, a son tuberculosis, Henry (1818-1836), and two daughters, Rebecca Elizabeth (1815-1889) and Virginia (1822-1847), which is desperate to admiration for his cousin and brother Edgar, William Henry. In this city, he published a second collection of poems, Al Aaraaf, Tamerlane and poems minors at Hatch and Dunning in December 1829.
With warm letters of recommendation from his former officers and a cold supplication John Allan, he went on foot to Washington to seek admission to the prestigious academy John Eaton, Secretary of war. Its efforts have achieved no success, he returned to Baltimore.
Edgar was admitted to West Point in June 1830. He made brilliant studies, best in academic disciplines and in military exercises. John Allan, however, has remarried with Louisa Patterson, who will give him three son. Excédé by avarice John Allan, who again denied the money to his studies, and opposed to the discipline, Edgar is voluntarily return to West Point (by refusing to go to class or l 'church) after judgement of the court martial on February 8, 1831. On March 6, he left school with letters of recommendation from his superiors.
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