The bagpipe is a musical instrument wind. This is the piccolo of the oboe family, which was the basis for a bagpipe with the same name, supplied by a bellows. It also gives the extension name of "musette" to various reed instruments such as bagpipes center, the Breton bagpipes, oboe and finally the pastoral bagpipe Auvergne. Also designated as the fistula, the piccolo is in the Middle Ages when the bagpipes appears in the sixteenth century when it was as much a pastoral instrument than an instrument of Court.
From the thirteenth century in miniature of the "Cantigas" of Alfonso the Wise, the bagpipe is described as a small torch keyless double reed, conical bore visibly and flag piriform (pear shaped). Piccolo oboe consort of particular shawms oboe and Poitou, it is called in the seventeenth century "pastoral oboe" (as opposed to the court bagpipe) or Gentleman's Oboe across the Channel. In the nineteenth century, the factors he added some keys and the twentieth century saw the birth of a model-consistent copy a minor third (E flat) or a perfect fourth (in F) above the modern oboe. Used in the avant-garde bands in recurring oboe, Bruno Maderna him dedicate a Solo and Concerto No. 2.
In the sixteenth century the bagpipe is the basis for an early bagpipes bag supplied with air by a bellows: the bagpipe court.
Richly decorated with ivory, ebony, stones and precious fabrics, she will own up to five drones and two chanters for melody or more precisely:
* A skin of leather covered with a brocade (blown with a bellows),
* Great big oboe or flute, cylindrical bore, with a double reed and six key (three on back and three on the right side). The last hole to the right ear was split in order to play the half-tone.
* An oboe or small auxiliary cylinder, closed at the end and with six keys (three forward and three back). These keys give a series of six chromatic notes, but closed, no sound.
* A cylinder containing 4 or 5 drones, open or closed by layettes which also regulate the tone of two drones.
In the Treaty of the bagpipe, printed by Jean Girin in Lyon in 1672 Borjon wrote: "But as he had breath to play this instrument fistula, and that fatigue was accompanied by a very bad grace, to go as enjoyable, it has found the secret for 40 or 50 years, adding a bellows, which has been borrowed organs, through which it is filled with as much air as you want without taking any other penalty that gently lift or lower the arm that leads. "
The term "musette" was subsequently appointed as the other pipes:
* Musette Bechonnet (Auvergne)
* Musette Bresse (Burgundy), small bagpipe bellows, oboe in B flat and two drones.
For this instrument very popular methods, transcriptions and compositions are widely disseminated, particularly those of Jacques Martin Hotteterre (Airs et brunettes two and three above with bass - from best Authours in 1721 or opus 10, Method for Musette containing principles, a collection of tunes and some preludes in 1738).
The pack gave its name to one of the dances of the suite.
The bal-musette or bagpipe is a musical genre French twentieth century, originally played by bagpipes (usually cabrette to be gradually replaced by the accordion) and violin.
Read also Bagpipes