Gothic art is an artistic medieval period extending approximately two hundred years. Deriving from the Romanesque in the course of the twelfth century, and progresses to the International Gothic, the more secular character, before the Renaissance. Gothic art was first shown by the architecture, but also in sculpture, painting on wood, stained glass, and illumination.
Antonio Averlino (The Filaret), an Italian sculptor of the early Renaissance, Giorgio Vasari, Italian painter of mannerism, considered the art of the Middle Ages as barbaric and rude, and they are called Gothic. This is the origin of the term gothic.
Gothic architecture (or opus francigenum) is an architectural style that developed from the second part of the Middle Ages in Western Europe.
They are the Italians of the Renaissance who have called "Gothic" style that was initially appointed francigenum opus "how to build in Île de France. The term "Gothic" was subsequently used in a pejorative sense: Gothic art Gothic art was an art of "barbarians" who have forgotten techniques and Roman canon. A number of art historians now refute this decision and show that, compared to the preceding Romanesque architecture, Gothic architecture is not so much a rupture evolution.
Gothic architecture in Upper Picardy appears in the twelfth century it spread rapidly to the north of the Loire and in Europe until the mid-sixteenth century. The Gothic aesthetic is still very present in French architecture until the early twentieth century.
Its strong identity is both philosophical and architectural. It is likely, these two perspectives, one of the greatest artistic achievements of the Middle Ages.
Aesthetics of Gothic architecture
Although it is common to define the Gothic architecture through use of the rainbow or the broken nose, one can not define a specific architectural style, or any other art, by its technical characteristics. Oppose the Romanesque-Gothic by the use of semicircular or that of the warhead has no meaning. The pointed arch, the arch, the flying buttress are used well before the onset of the first Gothic buildings.
Many other architectural and decorative methods were used. The alternating high and low battery cells pace the aisle and reinforces the impression of length, horizontality. The aspect ratio of the nave boosts or reduces the sensation of height of the vault. The shape of the batteries, the decoration of capitals, the proportion of levels (high arches, triforium clerestory ),... all involved in the expression of the aesthetic of Gothic architecture:
* Willingness to height, (Cathedral of Beauvais)
* Research verticality (Notre-Dame d'Amiens)
* Alternation of empty and full (Notre-Dame de Laon)
* Merge space (Cathedral of Bourges)
* Multiplication games of lights and colors (Notre-Dame de Chartres).
Thus, the architectural elements have been put at the service of choice and aesthetic research. They were only tools to achieve the desired effects. To raise the ships ever higher, it was necessary to improve the technique of flying buttresses. To increase the light and hollow walls, use of the pointed arch was best suited. The fibrous cells were homogenized space and gave a sense of logical volumes.
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