The candle is an object used in general lighting consisting of a fat and a burning fuse. It was invented in the mid-century middle agee. Its ancestor is the effort that goes back at least to the early third millennium BC. AD.
The candle is also an ancient unit of measurement of luminous intensity, now replaced by the candela.
For centuries, the ring was used to make candles. Split with care to avoid damaging it in the marrow, it was dipped in vegetable fat or animal then let it harden. It did burn in burn rushes. In the West, from medieval candle competes with the oil lamp. This has the disadvantage of demanding constant attention: it must fill regularly, and cut up the wick chars, clean the oil flowing. The sweater, only consists of a wick surrounded by beef tallow or mutton, is more practical without being overly expensive (but it is taxed and oil is cheaper). Less liquid spills, flame adjustment, reservoir to fill. But tallow and grease flowing fingers, the flame remains yellow and smoky, always keep the wick ends with charcoal.
The nobility and clergy were lit with candles beeswax and let the people lighting the tallow. The candle wax retains the advantages of the candle and eliminates defects. But its price limits its dissemination to the highest spheres of society.
The word "candle" is published in French in the fourteenth century, alleging Bugai transcription of Arabic word Kabyle Bgayet, name of a seaport town of Kabylie in Algeria (now Bejaia) which provided a large amount wax for making candles. The candle as such was developed in the mid-nineteenth century and is distinguished from the candle because of its raw material and the use of braided cotton wicks. The braiding allows the wick to bend and burn: unnecessary when the nose. The wretched candle disappears, and the wax loses its interest.
In 1783 the Swedish chemist Carl Scheele (1742-1786) had, through his research on the soap, boiled in olive oil with lead oxide and obtained a substance with a sweet taste that he called Olsuss and is now known as the glycerin. In 1823 the French chemist Michel-Eugene Chevreul (1786-1889), prompted by this discovery, discovered that this is not the fat that is combined with alkali to form soap, but they are first broken down into fatty acids and glycerin (or glycerol). Chevreul is at the origin of the theory of saponification. These two elements will form the basis of a massive industrialization of the candle and soap. Now, soap and CIRI belong to the same corporation, including Nantes became the capital. Today, 80% of French production of candles from the Nantes region.
The appearance of the paraffin (petroleum distillate) and stearin (from animal and vegetable fat) now allows the production of better quality candles.
Candles: Usage today
Candles: In Medicine